The Czech Republic keeps an eye on Eastern Europe

Fur­ther EU enlarge­ment has been a long-term pri­or­i­ty of the Czech Repub­lic and a steady ingre­di­ent of Czech Euro­pean pol­i­cy.11See, e.g., Beneš, Vít: A cher­ished child left out in the cold: the Czech Repub­lic and her enlarge­ment pri­or­i­ty, in: Drulák, P./Šabič, Z. (eds.): The Czech and Sloven­ian EU pres­i­den­cies in a com­par­a­tive per­spec­tive, Dor­drecht: Repub­lic of Let­ters, 2010 in print. In the past years, Czech diplo­ma­cy invest­ed a good deal of polit­i­cal cap­i­tal in the enlarge­ment cause, try­ing to repulse the cri­tique of the “enlarge­ment-scep­ti­cal” gov­ern­ments. The Czech polit­i­cal elites tac­it­ly agree on the mer­its of the EU enlarge­ment in gen­er­al. On the oth­er hand, dis­putes arise when indi­vid­ual coun­tries are being dis­cussed. In fact, con­sen­sus is lim­it­ed to the sup­port of the Balkan coun­tries’ mem­ber­ship.22Mediafax.cz: Balkán do EU patří, shodu­jí se pol­i­tické strany [Polit­i­cal par­ties agree: the Balka­ns belong in the EU], 29 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3032459-Balkan-do-EU-patri-shoduji-se-politicke-strany (last access: 24 June 2010). The nego­ti­a­tions with Croa­t­ia are unan­i­mous­ly sup­port­ed by all polit­i­cal play­ers. Even though the sup­port for EU enlarge­ment was not a top­ic of strong procla­ma­tions by the Czech polit­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tion, Czech diplo­ma­cy con­tin­u­ous­ly expressed its sup­port.33Gov­ern­ment of the Czech Repub­lic: J. Chmiel se setkal s chor­vatským vyjed­navačem pro vst­up do EU [J. Chmiel met with the Croa­t­ian nego­tia­tor], 29 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.cz/cz/evropske-zalezitosti/tiskove-zpravy/j–chmiel-se-setkal-s-chorvatskym-vyjednavacem-pro-vstup-do-eu-70002/ (last access: 24 June 2010); Czech Social Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: ČSSD usilu­je o co nejrych­le­jší vst­up Chor­vats­ka do EU [Social Democ­rats sup­port a speedy entrance of Croa­t­ia into the EU], 17 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.socdem.cz/inews/video/cssd-usiluje-o-co-nejrychlejsi-vstup-chorvatska-do-eu (last access: 24 June 2010). Croatia’s case is also unprob­lem­at­ic due to the pop­u­lar­i­ty of the coun­try as a tourist des­ti­na­tion among the Czech population.

Oth­er Balkan coun­tries are sub­sumed under a gen­er­al pri­or­i­ty in the EU enlarge­ment to the Balka­ns. Indi­vid­ual actors rarely express pref­er­ences regard­ing indi­vid­ual coun­tries. The key polit­i­cal actors and experts do not seem to pri­ori­tise one Balkan coun­try over anoth­er. Every­body acknowl­edges that Croa­t­ia will enter the EU sep­a­rate­ly, but oth­er Balkan coun­tries are expect­ed to join the EU with­in a short time span or as a group. All Balkan coun­tries are expect­ed to join the EU in a mid-term per­spec­tive. At this time, the focus is on keep­ing the enlarge­ment agen­da alive so that the indi­vid­ual coun­tries can enter the EU depend­ing on their merits.

On the oth­er hand, Turkey is clear­ly a par­tic­u­lar case. On the polit­i­cal lev­el, Turkey’s acces­sion is being dis­cussed sep­a­rate­ly and more intense­ly, and the issue is con­tro­ver­sial. The Czech Repub­lic offi­cial­ly sup­ports the acces­sion of Turkey into the EU once all its entry con­di­tions are met. The acces­sion of Turkey into the EU is vocal­ly sup­port­ed by the Czech Pres­i­dent.44Czech Tele­vi­sion: Klaus a řecký prezi­dent se shodli na rozšiřování EU i o Turecko [Klaus and the Greek pres­i­dent agreed on the EU enlarge­ment includ­ing Turkey], 2 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ct24.cz/domaci/74238-klaus-a-recky-prezident-se-shodli-na-rozsirovani-eu-i-o-turecko/ (last access: 24 June 2010). Most par­ties either open­ly sup­port the prospect of full mem­ber­ship or at least favour the con­tin­u­a­tion of nego­ti­a­tions.55Eurozprávy.cz: Srovnání pro­gramů pol­i­tick­ých stran v neeko­nom­ick­ých témat­e­ch [A com­par­i­son of the par­ty pro­grammes in non-eco­nom­ic areas], 6 May 2010, avail­able at: http://domaci.eurozpravy.cz/politika/8490-srovnani-programu-politickych-stran-v-neekonomickych-tematech/ (last access: 24 June 2010). The argu­ments voiced in the cur­rent debate often start with the obser­va­tion that the sus­pen­sion of talks by the EU would harm the rep­u­ta­tion of the EU. Turkey is seen by sup­port­ers of its EU acces­sion as an impor­tant part­ner in strength­en­ing the EU’s ener­gy secu­ri­ty or as an impor­tant asset for the EU as a glob­al polit­i­cal actor. On the oth­er hand, the oppo­nents of Turk­ish mem­ber­ship (the Chris­t­ian Democ­rats – KDU-ČSL – and oth­er, small­er par­ties includ­ing Pub­lic Affairs – VV)66Mediafax.cz: Lidov­ci, Zemanov­ci a Věci veře­jné nechtějí Turecko v Evrop­ské unii [The Chris­t­ian Democ­rats, Zeman’s Par­ty and Pub­lic Affairs do not want Turkey in the Euro­pean Union], 25 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3030399-Lidovci-Zemanovci-a-Veci-verejne-nechteji-Turecko-v-Evropske-unii (last access: 24 June 2010). point to the cul­tur­al and civil­i­sa­tion­al dif­fer­ences (“non-Euro­peaness”) of Turkey. Even though these par­ties are mar­gin­al on the polit­i­cal scene, their posi­tions echo the atti­tudes of the silent major­i­ty of Czech cit­i­zens which oppose Turkey’s EU mem­ber­ship. Accord­ing to a 2007 poll, 57 per­cent were against Turkey’s mem­ber­ship and only 27 per­cent were in favour of it.77Pub­lic Opin­ion Research Cen­tre: Pos­to­je českých občanů k Evrop­ské unii a její­mu rozšiřování [The atti­tudes of the Czech cit­i­zens towards the EU and its enlarge­ment], 21 Feb­ru­ary 2007, avail­able at: http://www.cvvm.cas.cz/upl/zpravy/100656s_pm70221.pdf (last access: 24 June 2010). Even though there are no new­er opin­ion polls, we assume that this neg­a­tive atti­tude persists.

In the exam­ined peri­od, the prospect of Iceland’s acces­sion into the EU has been dis­cussed by the media and think tanks in the wake of Iceland’s bid to join the EU. Since Ice­land is a devel­oped West Euro­pean coun­try, and there are no neg­a­tive feel­ings towards it, the prospect of its mem­ber­ship is almost unequiv­o­cal­ly accept­ed by all rel­e­vant actors. Czech polit­i­cal par­ties are ready to come up with inno­v­a­tive ideas when it comes to EU enlarge­ment. For exam­ple, the right-wing par­ties seem to sup­port the idea that, in the long-term peri­od, Israel also should belong in the EU. On the oppo­site side of the polit­i­cal spec­trum, com­mu­nists dream about an EU “from Van­cou­ver to Van­cou­ver”.88Mediafax.cz: Balkán do EU patří, shodu­jí se pol­i­tické strany [The Balka­ns fits into the EU, polit­i­cal par­ties agree], 29 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3032459-Balkan-do-EU-patri-shoduji-se-politicke-strany (last access: 24 June 2010).

Most of the Czech polit­i­cal par­ties offi­cial­ly sup­port fur­ther EU enlarge­ment in their pro­gramme doc­u­ments.99Czech Social Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: Zahraniční poli­ti­ka [For­eign pol­i­cy], Lubomír Zaorálek, shad­ow min­is­ter of for­eign affairs, 30 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.cssd.cz/volby/oranzove-knihy/ (last access: 24 June 2010); Civic Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: Podrob­ný voleb­ní pro­gram [Detailed elec­tion pro­gramme], avail­able at: http://www.ods.cz/volby2010/data/soubory-ke-stazeni/182/volebni-program-velky.pdf (last access: 24 June 2010); Tra­di­tion Respon­si­bil­i­ty Pros­per­i­ty 09: Zahraniční poli­ti­ka [For­eign Pol­i­cy], Elec­tion pro­gramme 2010, avail­able at: http://www.top09.cz/proc-nas-volit/volebni-program/volebni-program-2010/?clanek=1352 (last access: 24 June 2010). Nev­er­the­less, the issue of EU enlarge­ment was not present in the elec­tion cam­paign. The same can be said about pub­lic atti­tudes: the Czech pop­u­la­tion sup­ports fur­ther EU enlarge­ment – accord­ing to the last Euro­barom­e­ter (Autumn 2009), 63 per­cent of Czech cit­i­zens sup­port fur­ther EU enlarge­ment while 31 per­cent oppose the pol­i­cy, the Euro­barom­e­ter even record­ed an increase in sup­port.1010Stan­dard Euro­barom­e­ter 72, Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb72/eb72_en.htm (last access: 24 June 2010). On the oth­er hand, sup­port for fur­ther EU enlarge­ment has not been man­i­fest­ed in pub­lic discussions.

In late 2009, the Czech Šte­fan Füle became Com­mis­sion­er for Enlarge­ment and Euro­pean Neigh­bour­hood Pol­i­cy.1111Czech News Agency: Czech Fuele to be EU com­mis­sion­er for enlarge­ment, 27 Novem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/zpravy/czech-fuele-to-be-eu-commissioner-for-enlargement/409570&id_seznam=1800 (last access: 24 June 2010). This appoint­ment has been wel­comed by all polit­i­cal actors as a nat­ur­al expres­sion of the Czech Republic’s long-term inter­ests in EU enlarge­ment. Even though the dai­ly activ­i­ty of the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion is some­how remote to the Czech media, they con­tin­ue report­ing the steps tak­en by Com­mis­sion­er Füle.1212Czech News Agency: Czech press sur­vey — Novem­ber 28, 28 Novem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/news/zpravy/czech-press-survey-november-28/409699 (last access: 24 June 2010). Nev­er­the­less, the issue of EU enlarge­ment has been side­lined by the Greek cri­sis and the sub­se­quent dis­cus­sion about the fate of the Euro­zone. EU enlarge­ment as such or the prospects of indi­vid­ual can­di­date coun­tries have not been dis­cussed in the pub­lic debate and thus we have record­ed no shifts in the posi­tions of rel­e­vant actors.

With regard to the east­ern dimen­sion of the Euro­pean Neigh­bour­hood Pol­i­cy (ENP), we may argue that it con­sumed some of the ener­gy and atten­tion pre­vi­ous­ly devot­ed to enlarge­ment. Czech diplo­mats par­tic­i­pat­ed in sev­er­al activ­i­ties (sem­i­nars, forums) devot­ed to the East­ern Part­ner­ship.1313Min­istry of For­eign Affairs: Czech-Slo­vak Forum on the East­ern Pol­i­cy, 18 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/issues_and_press/events_and_issues/press_notices/x2010_01_19_czech_slovak_forum_on_the_eastern_policy.html (last access: 24 June 2010); Min­istry of For­eign Affairs: Min­is­ter Kohout opened a sem­i­nar on East­ern Part­ner­ship in Madrid, 27 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/issues_and_press/events_and_issues/press_releases/x2010_01_27_minister_kohout_opened_a_seminar_on_eastern_partnership.html (last access: 24 June 2010). The diplo­ma­cy of Mirek Topolánek’s gov­ern­ment focused its atten­tion on the east, as it con­cen­trat­ed on foment­ing a strong Euro­pean posi­tion towards Rus­sia on ener­gy and oth­er issues and towards the east­ern neigh­bour­hood in gen­er­al. Fischer’s gov­ern­ment (in pow­er since mid-2009) kept the focus on the East­ern Part­ner­ship, even though the dis­course has some­how changed.

Orig­i­nal­ly, the East­ern Part­ner­ship was per­ceived as a coun­ter­bal­ance to France’s Union for the Mediter­ranean,1414Týden: EU: nadšení i zdržen­livost ohled­ně Unie pro Stře­do­moří [EU: Enthu­si­asm and restraint regard­ing the Union for the Mediter­ranean], 14 March 2008, avail­able at: http://www.tyden.cz/rubriky/zahranici/evropa/eu-nadseni-i-zdrzenlivost-ohledne-unie-pro-stredomori_49004.html (last access: 24 June 2010). which would ensure the EU’s atten­tion and pres­ence in the region of East­ern Europe in times of more assertive Russ­ian for­eign pol­i­cy. In the first half of 2010, the Czech dis­course changed a bit; for exam­ple, the Min­is­ter of For­eign Affairs Jan Kohout and his Ger­man coun­ter­part, Gui­do West­er­welle, stressed in a joint arti­cle that the East­ern Part­ner­ship is not a pri­vate club and that third coun­tries like Rus­sia and Turkey are most wel­come to par­tic­i­pate in it.1515West­er­welle, Guido/Kohout, Jan: Joint arti­cle on the Euro­pean Union’s East­ern Part­ner­ship by Fed­er­al For­eign Min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle and the Min­is­ter of For­eign Affairs of the Czech Repub­lic Jan Kohout, Finan­cial Times Deutsch­land, 4 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Infoservice/Presse/Interview/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 24 June 2010).

Even though Czech polit­i­cal par­ties dif­fer in their assess­ments of Rus­sia and its for­eign pol­i­cy, the East­ern Part­ner­ship is unequiv­o­cal­ly assessed pos­i­tive­ly.1616See, e.g., Gov­ern­ment of the Czech Repub­lic: Achieve­ments of the Czech Pres­i­den­cy: Europe with­out Bar­ri­ers, Sep­tem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.eu2009.cz/scripts/file.php?id=61211&down=yes (last access: 24 June 2010); Král, David/Bartovic, Vladimír/Řiháčková, Věra: The 2009 Czech EU Pres­i­den­cy: Con­test­ed Lead­er­ship at a Time of Cri­sis, Stock­holm: Swedish Insti­tute for Euro­pean Pol­i­cy Stud­ies, 2009. There is a con­sen­sus among Czech politi­cians, the media and ana­lysts that the ini­tia­tive rep­re­sents one of the suc­cess­es of last year’s Czech EU Pres­i­den­cy. On the oth­er hand, the East­ern Part­ner­ship remains an “expert-dri­ven” pol­i­cy. As far as we can judge from the Czech media, the gen­er­al pub­lic remains dis­in­ter­est­ed and unin­formed in regard to it. In con­trast to Poland, Czech soci­ety does not feel any deep emo­tion­al attach­ment to the region. As a con­se­quence, the polit­i­cal par­ties rarely men­tion the East­ern Part­ner­ship as such in their elec­toral pro­grammes, let alone in their elec­tion cam­paigns. The East­ern Part­ner­ship remains a domain of some par­ty experts (the ini­tia­tive fits into broad­er con­cerns over con­tain­ing Rus­sia and spread­ing democ­ra­cy), pro­fes­sion­al diplo­mats and aca­d­e­mics. While EU enlarge­ment rep­re­sents a tan­gi­ble and under­stand­able pol­i­cy for the ordi­nary cit­i­zen, pub­lic aware­ness of the East­ern Part­ner­ship seems to be rel­a­tive­ly low. The Union for the Mediter­ranean is not dis­cussed in the media at all and it receives only lim­it­ed (if any) atten­tion from polit­i­cal par­ties, experts and academics.

    Footnotes

  • 1See, e.g., Beneš, Vít: A cher­ished child left out in the cold: the Czech Repub­lic and her enlarge­ment pri­or­i­ty, in: Drulák, P./Šabič, Z. (eds.): The Czech and Sloven­ian EU pres­i­den­cies in a com­par­a­tive per­spec­tive, Dor­drecht: Repub­lic of Let­ters, 2010 in print.
  • 2Mediafax.cz: Balkán do EU patří, shodu­jí se pol­i­tické strany [Polit­i­cal par­ties agree: the Balka­ns belong in the EU], 29 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3032459-Balkan-do-EU-patri-shoduji-se-politicke-strany (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 3Gov­ern­ment of the Czech Repub­lic: J. Chmiel se setkal s chor­vatským vyjed­navačem pro vst­up do EU [J. Chmiel met with the Croa­t­ian nego­tia­tor], 29 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.cz/cz/evropske-zalezitosti/tiskove-zpravy/j–chmiel-se-setkal-s-chorvatskym-vyjednavacem-pro-vstup-do-eu-70002/ (last access: 24 June 2010); Czech Social Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: ČSSD usilu­je o co nejrych­le­jší vst­up Chor­vats­ka do EU [Social Democ­rats sup­port a speedy entrance of Croa­t­ia into the EU], 17 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.socdem.cz/inews/video/cssd-usiluje-o-co-nejrychlejsi-vstup-chorvatska-do-eu (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 4Czech Tele­vi­sion: Klaus a řecký prezi­dent se shodli na rozšiřování EU i o Turecko [Klaus and the Greek pres­i­dent agreed on the EU enlarge­ment includ­ing Turkey], 2 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ct24.cz/domaci/74238-klaus-a-recky-prezident-se-shodli-na-rozsirovani-eu-i-o-turecko/ (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 5Eurozprávy.cz: Srovnání pro­gramů pol­i­tick­ých stran v neeko­nom­ick­ých témat­e­ch [A com­par­i­son of the par­ty pro­grammes in non-eco­nom­ic areas], 6 May 2010, avail­able at: http://domaci.eurozpravy.cz/politika/8490-srovnani-programu-politickych-stran-v-neekonomickych-tematech/ (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 6Mediafax.cz: Lidov­ci, Zemanov­ci a Věci veře­jné nechtějí Turecko v Evrop­ské unii [The Chris­t­ian Democ­rats, Zeman’s Par­ty and Pub­lic Affairs do not want Turkey in the Euro­pean Union], 25 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3030399-Lidovci-Zemanovci-a-Veci-verejne-nechteji-Turecko-v-Evropske-unii (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 7Pub­lic Opin­ion Research Cen­tre: Pos­to­je českých občanů k Evrop­ské unii a její­mu rozšiřování [The atti­tudes of the Czech cit­i­zens towards the EU and its enlarge­ment], 21 Feb­ru­ary 2007, avail­able at: http://www.cvvm.cas.cz/upl/zpravy/100656s_pm70221.pdf (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 8Mediafax.cz: Balkán do EU patří, shodu­jí se pol­i­tické strany [The Balka­ns fits into the EU, polit­i­cal par­ties agree], 29 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mediafax.cz/politika/3032459-Balkan-do-EU-patri-shoduji-se-politicke-strany (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 9Czech Social Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: Zahraniční poli­ti­ka [For­eign pol­i­cy], Lubomír Zaorálek, shad­ow min­is­ter of for­eign affairs, 30 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.cssd.cz/volby/oranzove-knihy/ (last access: 24 June 2010); Civic Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty: Podrob­ný voleb­ní pro­gram [Detailed elec­tion pro­gramme], avail­able at: http://www.ods.cz/volby2010/data/soubory-ke-stazeni/182/volebni-program-velky.pdf (last access: 24 June 2010); Tra­di­tion Respon­si­bil­i­ty Pros­per­i­ty 09: Zahraniční poli­ti­ka [For­eign Pol­i­cy], Elec­tion pro­gramme 2010, avail­able at: http://www.top09.cz/proc-nas-volit/volebni-program/volebni-program-2010/?clanek=1352 (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 10Stan­dard Euro­barom­e­ter 72, Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb72/eb72_en.htm (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 11Czech News Agency: Czech Fuele to be EU com­mis­sion­er for enlarge­ment, 27 Novem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/zpravy/czech-fuele-to-be-eu-commissioner-for-enlargement/409570&id_seznam=1800 (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 12Czech News Agency: Czech press sur­vey — Novem­ber 28, 28 Novem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/news/zpravy/czech-press-survey-november-28/409699 (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 13Min­istry of For­eign Affairs: Czech-Slo­vak Forum on the East­ern Pol­i­cy, 18 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/issues_and_press/events_and_issues/press_notices/x2010_01_19_czech_slovak_forum_on_the_eastern_policy.html (last access: 24 June 2010); Min­istry of For­eign Affairs: Min­is­ter Kohout opened a sem­i­nar on East­ern Part­ner­ship in Madrid, 27 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/issues_and_press/events_and_issues/press_releases/x2010_01_27_minister_kohout_opened_a_seminar_on_eastern_partnership.html (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 14Týden: EU: nadšení i zdržen­livost ohled­ně Unie pro Stře­do­moří [EU: Enthu­si­asm and restraint regard­ing the Union for the Mediter­ranean], 14 March 2008, avail­able at: http://www.tyden.cz/rubriky/zahranici/evropa/eu-nadseni-i-zdrzenlivost-ohledne-unie-pro-stredomori_49004.html (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 15West­er­welle, Guido/Kohout, Jan: Joint arti­cle on the Euro­pean Union’s East­ern Part­ner­ship by Fed­er­al For­eign Min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle and the Min­is­ter of For­eign Affairs of the Czech Repub­lic Jan Kohout, Finan­cial Times Deutsch­land, 4 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Infoservice/Presse/Interview/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 24 June 2010).
  • 16See, e.g., Gov­ern­ment of the Czech Repub­lic: Achieve­ments of the Czech Pres­i­den­cy: Europe with­out Bar­ri­ers, Sep­tem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.eu2009.cz/scripts/file.php?id=61211&down=yes (last access: 24 June 2010); Král, David/Bartovic, Vladimír/Řiháčková, Věra: The 2009 Czech EU Pres­i­den­cy: Con­test­ed Lead­er­ship at a Time of Cri­sis, Stock­holm: Swedish Insti­tute for Euro­pean Pol­i­cy Stud­ies, 2009.

The reports focus on a report­ing peri­od from Decem­ber 2009 until May 2010. This sur­vey was con­duct­ed on the basis of a ques­tion­naire that has been elab­o­rat­ed in March and April 2010. Most of the 31 reports were deliv­ered in May 2010.

The EU-27 Watch No. 9 receives sig­nif­i­cant fund­ing from the Otto Wolff-Foun­da­tion, Cologne, in the frame­work of the ‘Dia­log Europa der Otto Wolff-Stiftung’, and finan­cial sup­port from the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion. The Euro­pean Com­mis­sion is not respon­si­ble for any use that may be made of the infor­ma­tion con­tained therein.