Germany more realistic and less enthusiastic of further enlargements; Neighbourhood Policy projects assessed positively

Of the three current accession candidates Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey, only Croatia is expected to be part of the next enlargement round. Macedonia is not mentioned much in the public debate and Turkey is a special case of concern in Germany due to the Turkish minority living in the country. In addition, Iceland is expected to join soon. As for future enlargements, the general opinion in Germany is that it has to be done “by the book”, which means in a controlled and not turbo way. This resonates in the government’s coalition agreement of the new conservative/liberal government which backs an “enlargement policy with a sense of proportion”.11Wettach, Silke: Erweiterung, Staaten pochen wieder an die Tur, WirtschaftsWoche, 17 December 2009, available at: http://www.wiwo.de/politik-weltwirtschaft/erweiterung-staaten-pochen-wieder-an-die-tuer-416739/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).

Recently, less favourable voices are on the rise. In general, the German public views a membership of more than the current 27 member states critically. 66 percent of Germans (compared to 46 percent of Europeans in average) are against further enlargement of the EU.22European Commission: Eurobarometer 71 – National Report – Executive Summary Germany, Spring 2009, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb71/eb71_de_en_exec.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). For example, at his acceptance speech on the Sonning Prize, the German author Hans Magnus Enzensberger criticised the EU’s enlargement frenzy.33Kaczmarek, Michael: Enzensberger: EU ist “grenzlos größenwahnsinnig”, EurActiv, 2 February 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/enzensberger-eu-ist-grenzenlos-grenwahnsinnig-002680 (last access: 19 May 2010). However, the former Commissioner Günter Verheugen assumes that the enlargement waves will continue and cannot be stopped since the process has a dynamic of its own.44EurActiv: Verheugen: Erweiterung hat “unaufhaltsame Dynamik”, 26 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/unternehmen-und-arbeit-000315/artikel/verheugen-erweiterung-hat-unaufhaltsame-dynamik-002650 (last access: 19 May 2010).

Croatia – fighting corruption and privatisation seen as most urgent

After talking with the Croatian Prime Minister Jandranka Kosor, German Chancellor Angela Merkel pointed out that a date for accession will not be set before all criteria are fulfilled. The most important aspects to be dealt with are the fight against corruption and privatisation regulation. Overall, Chancellor Merkel is more reluctant than the other heads of state and government in the EU: “After Bulgaria and Romania’s entry in 2007, landing the EU with unresolved corruption and organised crime problems, enlargement became deeply unpopular in Germany, and is considered a serious vote-loser in Ms Merkel’s own Christian Democrat Party [CDU].”55Pries, Knut: Germany declines to set date for Croatia’s EU entry, EUobserver, 5 February 2010, available at: http://waz.euobserver.com/?aid=29416 (last access: 19 May 2010).

The internal changes and especially the presidential elections in Croatia have been the subject of many newspaper articles and analyses by political foundations.66Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Teilung Bosniens kommt nicht in Frage, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 3 February 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Josipović will Streitfragen mit Belgrad beilegen, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 19 January 2010; Wessel, Reinhard: Von Sanader zu Kosor; von Mesić zu Josipović – Die Neuordnung des politischen Systems in Kroatien im Jahr 2009/2010, country report of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 18 January 2010, available at: http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_18988-544-1-30.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Konservative Stimmen für den Roten, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 12 January 2010; Wessels, Reinhard: Kroatien bekommt einen neuen Staatspräsidenten, country report of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 11 January 2010, available at: http://www.kas.de/proj/home/pub/40/1/year-2010/dokument_id-18572/index.html (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Ein grundsolider Favorit und ein aggressiver Gegner, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Sanader kündigt politische Rückkehr an, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Stichwahl in Kroatien zwischen Josipović und Bandić, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 29 December 2009; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Gegenkandidaten aus dem eigenen Lager, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 24 December 2009. For the whole region of the Western Balkans, Croatia’s accession is seen as setting a good example, a view shared by German Members of European Parliaments (MEPs).77EurActiv: Croatia’s accession negotiations set to conclude this year, 11 February 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/croatias-accession-negotiations-set-conclude-year (last access: 19 May 2010).

Iceland – a newcomer welcomed warmly

In the case of Iceland, Germany’s parliament (Bundestag) was the first to pave the way for opening membership talks.88Blogactiv: Island und die neuen Rechte des Bundestages, 22 April 2010, available at: http://nachbar.blogactiv.eu/2010/04/22/island-und-die-neuen-rechte-des-bundestages/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valentina: German house in landmark vote on Iceland EU membership, EUobserver, 22 April 2010, available at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010). It thus made use of the new Lisbon Treaty’s accompanying law, according to which the government now has to ask the parliament’s consent in order to agree to accession talks.99EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).

Following a motion by the governing coalition’s fractions, these latter gave their consent, while the Social Democrats (SPD) as well as the Greens abstained and the left-wing party DIE LINKE opposed the motion. Nevertheless, all five parties generally supported the beginning of membership negotiations1010Antrag der Fraktionen der CDU/CSU und FDP, Drucksache 17/1190, 24 March 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701190.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Dietmar Nietan et. al. und der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/1163, 23 March 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701163.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Dr. Diether Dehm et. al. und der Fraktion DIE LINKE, Drucksache 17/1059, 16 March 2010, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/010/1701059.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Manuel Sarrazin et. al. und der Fraktion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, Drucksache 17/271, 16 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/002/1700271.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). in motions of their own, which emphasised different aspects of Icelandic membership.1111Sach, Annette: Am Rande des Vulkans, Das Parlament, 26 April 2010, available at: http://www.das-parlament.de/2010/17/EuropaWelt/29450444.html (last access: 19 May 2010). However, cautious voices could also be heard which appealed not to repeat earlier enlargements’ mistakes, when new members were taken in too early.1212EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010). More specifically, these voices addressed the fisheries, unanimously identified as the most problematic field for membership, in which Iceland should not be given opt-outs though possibilities for transition. In addition, it was seen as problematic that the Icelandic population, with a total of 93 percent, overwhelmingly voted “No” against an international agreement dealing with the Icesave case.1313Schymik, Carsten: Islands Volksabstimmung über Icesave, SWP-Aktuell 14, February 2010, available at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/common/get_document.php?asset_id=6797 (last access: 19 May 2010); Zeit online: 93 Prozent der Isländer sagen Nein zu Schuldentilgung, 7 March 2010, available at: http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2010-03/island-referendum-schulden (last access: 10 June 2010).

On the whole, however, much like in the context of Croatia, the stance is generally positive.1414EurActiv: France, Germany ponder Iceland EU accession fallout, 10 December 2009, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010). Some German politicians underlined the fact that accession should be prepared under the strict conditionality of the Copenhagen criteria; moreover, no dates should be named too early and neither packet deals should be made nor enlargement waves envisaged too hastily.1515EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valentina: German house in landmark vote on Iceland EU membership, EUobserver, 22 April 2010, available at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutscher Bundestag: Plenarprotokoll 17/37, 22 April 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17037.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010). Initially, the Christian Social Union (CSU) warned that it is not the EU’s role to save bankrupt countries; however, it later supported Iceland’s accession in the German parliament.1616EurActiv: France, Germany ponder Iceland EU accession fallout, 10 December 2009, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutscher Bundestag: Islands EU Beitritt im Blick, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2010/29324587_kw16_sp_eu_island/index.html (last access: 21 Juni 2010).

Concerning the countries, which are not expected to become members in the next enlargement round, the accession process in the Western Balkan states is considered to be too slow and the membership negotiations with Turkey have slowed to a crawl due to various reservations from the EU member states, ranging from specificities concerning trade with Cyprus to the general question of membership.

Western Balkans – cautious enlargement at a snail’s pace

Enlargement and stability in the Western Balkans region is in Germany’s interest, an estimated 50 percent of deputies are said to be knowledgeable in the region.1717Antrag der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/106, 1 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Nicole Tepasse: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 21 June 2010). However, in a discussion on a motion by the Social Democrats on the Western Balkan countries’ European perspective, Marieluise Beck (Green Party) warned that there is a danger of the Western Balkan states being forgotten by the EU.1818Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010). This motion stressed the need to continue pressing ahead with the political and economic stabilisation of the region. In addition, it asked to react quickly, but only if conditions are fulfilled.1919Antrag der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/106, 01 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). The albeit slow progress shows the importance of a membership perspective for the stabilisation process in the Western Balkans. In this case as for future enlargements, the general opinion in the German political sphere is set both against short cuts on the fulfilment of the accession criteria and against an automated membership perspective.

Turkish accession remains point of contention

One of the countries not expected to become a member in the next enlargement round is Turkey, and discussions on the subject remain frequent and heated. In general, the government’s coalition agreement sees the membership talks with Turkey as an open-ended process. Moreover, the question of Turkey’s membership perspective is strongly combined with the process of integration of the three million strong Turkish minority into German society.

The German-Turkish interactions in the reporting period were intense due to a visit by Chancellor Merkel to Turkey in March 2010. This gained high visibility due to the word battle preceding the visit, where Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Merkel continued to distance themselves from the other’s opinion on Turkish schools in Germany, Turkish EU membership and sanctions against Iran.2020Braun, Stefan: Gemeinsam lächeln, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/267/507426/text/ (last access: 19 May 2010). Already on the way to Ankara and Istanbul, the German delegation struck a different tone, stressing the fact that the personal relations between the two politicians were excellent.2121Ibid. In a speech at the German-Turkish Economic Forum, Angela Merkel called for pragmatism concerning the question of Turkey’s full membership to the EU.2222Rede der Bundeskanzlerin beim Deutsch-Türkischen Wirtschaftsforum, Istanbul, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2010/03/2010-03-30-merkel-istanbul-deutsch-t_C3_BCrkisches-wirtschaftsforum.html (last access: 19 May 2010). Furthermore, she identified the Ankara Agreement as the largest barrier inhibiting the opening of negotiation chapters. Therefore, Turkey first has to clarify its situation with Cyprus.2323Regierung online: Deutschland und die Türkei: Partner in Europa, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2010/03/2010-03-29-ankara-erster-tag-tuerkei.html (last access: 21 June 2010).

One statement by Angela Merkel has been repeated in German media many times, namely that she has now understood that the expression “privileged partnership” has a negative connotation in Turkey. This does not mean, however, that she is shying away from the concept,2424Pressekonferenz der Bundeskanzlerin mit Ministerpräsident Erdogan, Ankara, 29 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/nn_1516/Content/DE/Mitschrift/Pressekonferenzen/2010/03/2010-03-29-pk-merkel-erdogan.html (last access: 19 May 2010). which she understands as a special relationship – a better and more intensive one than with other third states. She also called for consideration on whether full membership should still be aspired to by Turkey or not.2525Ibid. However, despite the fact that her opinion on full membership differs from the Turkish one, she stressed the circumstance that “pacta sunt servanda” and that the negotiations should be continued.2626Ibid.

The German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle also spoke on the EU-Turkey relations, demanding the country’s commitment to reforms.2727Güsten, Susanne: Störfeuer aus Kreuth reicht bis nach Ankara, Tagesspiegel, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/international/stoerfeuer-aus-kreuth-reicht-bis-nach-ankara/1659932.html (last access: 19 May 2010); EurActiv: Westerwelle fordert Reformen von der Türkei, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/westerwelle-mahnt-trkei-zu-reformen-002573 (last access: 19 May 2010). Being from a party with a more positive stance towards Turkish EU-membership, he stressed the fact that Turkey has a right to fair negotiations and that the EU should stick to its contracts.2828“Deutschland in Europa – eine Standortbestimmung” – Rede von Bundesaußenminister Guido Westerwelle an der Universität Bonn, 27 April 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100427-BM-D-in-Europa.html (last access: 19 May 2010). He also referred to the coalition agreement to point this out. Furthermore, he called for a new dynamic in the accession negotiations, which would have to start with settling the disagreements with Cyprus.2929Rede von Außenminister Guido Westerwelle anlässlich der Botschafterkonferenz des türkischen Außenministeriums in Ankara, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100107-BM-BoKo-Ankara.html (last access: 19 May 2010). As for other German politicians, while Ruprecht Polenz (CDU) says that it would be better to have Turkey in the EU, but only if it fulfils the criteria,3030Bickerich, Sebastian: Es wäre besser, die Türkei in der EU zu haben, Tagesspiegel, 29 March 2010. the social democrat Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) stresses the fact that there is a promise to be kept as regards Turkey.3131EurActiv: Steinmeier: Der Türkei sind wir im Wort, 29 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/steinmeier-der-trkei-sind-wir-im-wort-002665 (last access: 19 May 2010).

ENP and presidential elections in Ukraine

In general, the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and its two regional projects, the Union for the Mediterranean and even more so the Eastern Partnership, are positively assessed in Germany. The coalition agreement supports a further development of these policies, especially of the Eastern Partnership, based on common values.3232CDU.de: Wachstum. Bildung. Zusammenhalt. Der Koalitionsvertrag zwischen CDU, CSU und FDP, 17. Legistraturperiode, available at: http://www.cdu.de/doc/pdfc/091026-koalitionsvertrag-cducsu-fdp.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).

Due to the presidential elections in Ukraine, this country was a focal point concerning the ENP during the reporting period. In an article in the Financial Times Deutschland, Guido Westerwelle, together with the Czech Foreign Minister Jan Kohout, stressed the fact that the newly elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, wants to and should anchor Ukraine even more strongly within European norms and values.3333Westerwelle, Guido /Kohout, Jan: Die Partner im Osten müssen ins Boot, Financial Times Deutschland, 4 March 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Interviews/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 19 May 2010).

According to Cornelia Pieper, Minister of State at the Federal Foreign Office, the German government has a considerable interest in a stronger political and economic rapprochement of Ukraine to the EU and would welcome a near conclusion of the negotiations on an association agreement.3434Deutscher Bundestag: Plenarprotokoll 17/21, 9 February 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17021.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010). However, although Ukraine is an important partner in the Eastern Partnership, a membership perspective is not on the agenda.

    Footnotes

  • 1Wettach, Silke: Erweiterung, Staaten pochen wieder an die Tur, WirtschaftsWoche, 17 December 2009, available at: http://www.wiwo.de/politik-weltwirtschaft/erweiterung-staaten-pochen-wieder-an-die-tuer-416739/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 2European Commission: Eurobarometer 71 – National Report – Executive Summary Germany, Spring 2009, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb71/eb71_de_en_exec.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 3Kaczmarek, Michael: Enzensberger: EU ist “grenzlos größenwahnsinnig”, EurActiv, 2 February 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/enzensberger-eu-ist-grenzenlos-grenwahnsinnig-002680 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 4EurActiv: Verheugen: Erweiterung hat “unaufhaltsame Dynamik”, 26 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/unternehmen-und-arbeit-000315/artikel/verheugen-erweiterung-hat-unaufhaltsame-dynamik-002650 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 5Pries, Knut: Germany declines to set date for Croatia’s EU entry, EUobserver, 5 February 2010, available at: http://waz.euobserver.com/?aid=29416 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 6Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Teilung Bosniens kommt nicht in Frage, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 3 February 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Josipović will Streitfragen mit Belgrad beilegen, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 19 January 2010; Wessel, Reinhard: Von Sanader zu Kosor; von Mesić zu Josipović – Die Neuordnung des politischen Systems in Kroatien im Jahr 2009/2010, country report of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 18 January 2010, available at: http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_18988-544-1-30.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Konservative Stimmen für den Roten, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 12 January 2010; Wessels, Reinhard: Kroatien bekommt einen neuen Staatspräsidenten, country report of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 11 January 2010, available at: http://www.kas.de/proj/home/pub/40/1/year-2010/dokument_id-18572/index.html (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Ein grundsolider Favorit und ein aggressiver Gegner, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Sanader kündigt politische Rückkehr an, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Stichwahl in Kroatien zwischen Josipović und Bandić, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 29 December 2009; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Gegenkandidaten aus dem eigenen Lager, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 24 December 2009.
  • 7EurActiv: Croatia’s accession negotiations set to conclude this year, 11 February 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/croatias-accession-negotiations-set-conclude-year (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 8Blogactiv: Island und die neuen Rechte des Bundestages, 22 April 2010, available at: http://nachbar.blogactiv.eu/2010/04/22/island-und-die-neuen-rechte-des-bundestages/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valentina: German house in landmark vote on Iceland EU membership, EUobserver, 22 April 2010, available at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 9EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 10Antrag der Fraktionen der CDU/CSU und FDP, Drucksache 17/1190, 24 March 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701190.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Dietmar Nietan et. al. und der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/1163, 23 March 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701163.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Dr. Diether Dehm et. al. und der Fraktion DIE LINKE, Drucksache 17/1059, 16 March 2010, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/010/1701059.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abgeordneten Manuel Sarrazin et. al. und der Fraktion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, Drucksache 17/271, 16 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/002/1700271.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 11Sach, Annette: Am Rande des Vulkans, Das Parlament, 26 April 2010, available at: http://www.das-parlament.de/2010/17/EuropaWelt/29450444.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 12EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 13Schymik, Carsten: Islands Volksabstimmung über Icesave, SWP-Aktuell 14, February 2010, available at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/common/get_document.php?asset_id=6797 (last access: 19 May 2010); Zeit online: 93 Prozent der Isländer sagen Nein zu Schuldentilgung, 7 March 2010, available at: http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2010-03/island-referendum-schulden (last access: 10 June 2010).
  • 14EurActiv: France, Germany ponder Iceland EU accession fallout, 10 December 2009, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 15EurActiv: Premiere im Bundestag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsverhandlungen, 22 April 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valentina: German house in landmark vote on Iceland EU membership, EUobserver, 22 April 2010, available at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutscher Bundestag: Plenarprotokoll 17/37, 22 April 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17037.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 16EurActiv: France, Germany ponder Iceland EU accession fallout, 10 December 2009, available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutscher Bundestag: Islands EU Beitritt im Blick, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2010/29324587_kw16_sp_eu_island/index.html (last access: 21 Juni 2010).
  • 17Antrag der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/106, 1 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Nicole Tepasse: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 18Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Parlament, 7 December 2009, available at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 19Antrag der Fraktion der SPD, Drucksache 17/106, 01 December 2009, available at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 20Braun, Stefan: Gemeinsam lächeln, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/267/507426/text/ (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 21Ibid.
  • 22Rede der Bundeskanzlerin beim Deutsch-Türkischen Wirtschaftsforum, Istanbul, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2010/03/2010-03-30-merkel-istanbul-deutsch-t_C3_BCrkisches-wirtschaftsforum.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 23Regierung online: Deutschland und die Türkei: Partner in Europa, 30 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2010/03/2010-03-29-ankara-erster-tag-tuerkei.html (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 24Pressekonferenz der Bundeskanzlerin mit Ministerpräsident Erdogan, Ankara, 29 March 2010, available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/nn_1516/Content/DE/Mitschrift/Pressekonferenzen/2010/03/2010-03-29-pk-merkel-erdogan.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 25Ibid.
  • 26Ibid.
  • 27Güsten, Susanne: Störfeuer aus Kreuth reicht bis nach Ankara, Tagesspiegel, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/international/stoerfeuer-aus-kreuth-reicht-bis-nach-ankara/1659932.html (last access: 19 May 2010); EurActiv: Westerwelle fordert Reformen von der Türkei, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/westerwelle-mahnt-trkei-zu-reformen-002573 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 28“Deutschland in Europa – eine Standortbestimmung” – Rede von Bundesaußenminister Guido Westerwelle an der Universität Bonn, 27 April 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100427-BM-D-in-Europa.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 29Rede von Außenminister Guido Westerwelle anlässlich der Botschafterkonferenz des türkischen Außenministeriums in Ankara, 7 January 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100107-BM-BoKo-Ankara.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 30Bickerich, Sebastian: Es wäre besser, die Türkei in der EU zu haben, Tagesspiegel, 29 March 2010.
  • 31EurActiv: Steinmeier: Der Türkei sind wir im Wort, 29 January 2010, available at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/steinmeier-der-trkei-sind-wir-im-wort-002665 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 32CDU.de: Wachstum. Bildung. Zusammenhalt. Der Koalitionsvertrag zwischen CDU, CSU und FDP, 17. Legistraturperiode, available at: http://www.cdu.de/doc/pdfc/091026-koalitionsvertrag-cducsu-fdp.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 33Westerwelle, Guido /Kohout, Jan: Die Partner im Osten müssen ins Boot, Financial Times Deutschland, 4 March 2010, available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Interviews/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 34Deutscher Bundestag: Plenarprotokoll 17/21, 9 February 2010, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17021.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).

The reports focus on a reporting period from December 2009 until May 2010. This survey was conducted on the basis of a questionnaire that has been elaborated in March and April 2010. Most of the 31 reports were delivered in May 2010.

The EU-27 Watch No. 9 receives significant funding from the Otto Wolff-Foundation, Cologne, in the framework of the ‘Dialog Europa der Otto Wolff-Stiftung’, and financial support from the European Commission. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.