Germany more realistic and less enthusiastic of further enlargements; Neighbourhood Policy projects assessed positively

Of the three cur­rent acces­sion can­di­dates Croa­t­ia, Mace­do­nia and Turkey, only Croa­t­ia is expect­ed to be part of the next enlarge­ment round. Mace­do­nia is not men­tioned much in the pub­lic debate and Turkey is a spe­cial case of con­cern in Ger­many due to the Turk­ish minor­i­ty liv­ing in the coun­try. In addi­tion, Ice­land is expect­ed to join soon. As for future enlarge­ments, the gen­er­al opin­ion in Ger­many is that it has to be done “by the book”, which means in a con­trolled and not tur­bo way. This res­onates in the government’s coali­tion agree­ment of the new conservative/liberal gov­ern­ment which backs an “enlarge­ment pol­i­cy with a sense of pro­por­tion”.11Wet­tach, Silke: Erweiterung, Staat­en pochen wieder an die Tur, WirtschaftsWoche, 17 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.wiwo.de/politik-weltwirtschaft/erweiterung-staaten-pochen-wieder-an-die-tuer-416739/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).

Recent­ly, less favourable voic­es are on the rise. In gen­er­al, the Ger­man pub­lic views a mem­ber­ship of more than the cur­rent 27 mem­ber states crit­i­cal­ly. 66 per­cent of Ger­mans (com­pared to 46 per­cent of Euro­peans in aver­age) are against fur­ther enlarge­ment of the EU.22Euro­pean Com­mis­sion: Euro­barom­e­ter 71 – Nation­al Report – Exec­u­tive Sum­ma­ry Ger­many, Spring 2009, avail­able at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb71/eb71_de_en_exec.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). For exam­ple, at his accep­tance speech on the Son­ning Prize, the Ger­man author Hans Mag­nus Enzens­berg­er crit­i­cised the EU’s enlarge­ment fren­zy.33Kacz­marek, Michael: Enzens­berg­er: EU ist “gren­z­los größen­wahnsin­nig”, EurAc­tiv, 2 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/enzensberger-eu-ist-grenzenlos-grenwahnsinnig-002680 (last access: 19 May 2010). How­ev­er, the for­mer Com­mis­sion­er Gün­ter Ver­heugen assumes that the enlarge­ment waves will con­tin­ue and can­not be stopped since the process has a dynam­ic of its own.44EurAc­tiv: Ver­heugen: Erweiterung hat “unaufhalt­same Dynamik”, 26 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/unternehmen-und-arbeit-000315/artikel/verheugen-erweiterung-hat-unaufhaltsame-dynamik-002650 (last access: 19 May 2010).

Croatia – fighting corruption and privatisation seen as most urgent

After talk­ing with the Croa­t­ian Prime Min­is­ter Jan­dran­ka Kosor, Ger­man Chan­cel­lor Angela Merkel point­ed out that a date for acces­sion will not be set before all cri­te­ria are ful­filled. The most impor­tant aspects to be dealt with are the fight against cor­rup­tion and pri­vati­sa­tion reg­u­la­tion. Over­all, Chan­cel­lor Merkel is more reluc­tant than the oth­er heads of state and gov­ern­ment in the EU: “After Bul­gar­ia and Romania’s entry in 2007, land­ing the EU with unre­solved cor­rup­tion and organ­ised crime prob­lems, enlarge­ment became deeply unpop­u­lar in Ger­many, and is con­sid­ered a seri­ous vote-los­er in Ms Merkel’s own Chris­t­ian Demo­c­rat Par­ty [CDU].”55Pries, Knut: Ger­many declines to set date for Croatia’s EU entry, EUob­serv­er, 5 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://waz.euobserver.com/?aid=29416 (last access: 19 May 2010).

The inter­nal changes and espe­cial­ly the pres­i­den­tial elec­tions in Croa­t­ia have been the sub­ject of many news­pa­per arti­cles and analy­ses by polit­i­cal foun­da­tions.66Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Teilung Bosniens kommt nicht in Frage, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 3 Feb­ru­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Josipović will Stre­it­fra­gen mit Bel­grad bei­le­gen, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 19 Jan­u­ary 2010; Wes­sel, Rein­hard: Von Sanad­er zu Kosor; von Mesić zu Josipović – Die Neuord­nung des poli­tis­chen Sys­tems in Kroa­t­ien im Jahr 2009/2010, coun­try report of the Kon­rad Ade­nauer Stiftung, 18 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_18988-544–1‑30.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Kon­ser­v­a­tive Stim­men für den Roten, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 12 Jan­u­ary 2010; Wes­sels, Rein­hard: Kroa­t­ien bekommt einen neuen Staat­spräsi­den­ten, coun­try report of the Kon­rad Ade­nauer Stiftung, 11 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.kas.de/proj/home/pub/40/1/year-2010/dokument_id-18572/index.html (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Ein grund­solid­er Favorit und ein aggres­siv­er Geg­n­er, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 9 Jan­u­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Sanad­er kündigt poli­tis­che Rück­kehr an, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 9 Jan­u­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Stich­wahl in Kroa­t­ien zwis­chen Josipović und Bandić, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 29 Decem­ber 2009; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Gegenkan­di­dat­en aus dem eige­nen Lager, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 24 Decem­ber 2009. For the whole region of the West­ern Balka­ns, Croatia’s acces­sion is seen as set­ting a good exam­ple, a view shared by Ger­man Mem­bers of Euro­pean Par­lia­ments (MEPs).77EurAc­tiv: Croatia’s acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions set to con­clude this year, 11 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/croatias-accession-negotiations-set-conclude-year (last access: 19 May 2010).

Iceland – a newcomer welcomed warmly

In the case of Ice­land, Germany’s par­lia­ment (Bun­destag) was the first to pave the way for open­ing mem­ber­ship talks.88Blo­gac­tiv: Island und die neuen Rechte des Bun­destages, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://nachbar.blogactiv.eu/2010/04/22/island-und-die-neuen-rechte-des-bundestages/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valenti­na: Ger­man house in land­mark vote on Ice­land EU mem­ber­ship, EUob­serv­er, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010). It thus made use of the new Lis­bon Treaty’s accom­pa­ny­ing law, accord­ing to which the gov­ern­ment now has to ask the parliament’s con­sent in order to agree to acces­sion talks.99EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).

Fol­low­ing a motion by the gov­ern­ing coalition’s frac­tions, these lat­ter gave their con­sent, while the Social Democ­rats (SPD) as well as the Greens abstained and the left-wing par­ty DIE LINKE opposed the motion. Nev­er­the­less, all five par­ties gen­er­al­ly sup­port­ed the begin­ning of mem­ber­ship nego­ti­a­tions1010Antrag der Frak­tio­nen der CDU/CSU und FDP, Druck­sache 17/1190, 24 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701190.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Diet­mar Nietan et. al. und der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/1163, 23 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701163.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Dr. Diether Dehm et. al. und der Frak­tion DIE LINKE, Druck­sache 17/1059, 16 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/010/1701059.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Manuel Sar­razin et. al. und der Frak­tion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, Druck­sache 17/271, 16 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/002/1700271.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). in motions of their own, which empha­sised dif­fer­ent aspects of Ice­landic mem­ber­ship.1111Sach, Annette: Am Rande des Vulka­ns, Das Par­la­ment, 26 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.das-parlament.de/2010/17/EuropaWelt/29450444.html (last access: 19 May 2010). How­ev­er, cau­tious voic­es could also be heard which appealed not to repeat ear­li­er enlarge­ments’ mis­takes, when new mem­bers were tak­en in too ear­ly.1212EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010). More specif­i­cal­ly, these voic­es addressed the fish­eries, unan­i­mous­ly iden­ti­fied as the most prob­lem­at­ic field for mem­ber­ship, in which Ice­land should not be giv­en opt-outs though pos­si­bil­i­ties for tran­si­tion. In addi­tion, it was seen as prob­lem­at­ic that the Ice­landic pop­u­la­tion, with a total of 93 per­cent, over­whelm­ing­ly vot­ed “No” against an inter­na­tion­al agree­ment deal­ing with the Ice­save case.1313Schymik, Carsten: Islands Volksab­stim­mung über Ice­save, SWP-Aktuell 14, Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/common/get_document.php?asset_id=6797 (last access: 19 May 2010); Zeit online: 93 Prozent der Islän­der sagen Nein zu Schulden­til­gung, 7 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2010–03/island-referendum-schulden (last access: 10 June 2010).

On the whole, how­ev­er, much like in the con­text of Croa­t­ia, the stance is gen­er­al­ly pos­i­tive.1414EurAc­tiv: France, Ger­many pon­der Ice­land EU acces­sion fall­out, 10 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010). Some Ger­man politi­cians under­lined the fact that acces­sion should be pre­pared under the strict con­di­tion­al­i­ty of the Copen­hagen cri­te­ria; more­over, no dates should be named too ear­ly and nei­ther pack­et deals should be made nor enlarge­ment waves envis­aged too hasti­ly.1515EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valenti­na: Ger­man house in land­mark vote on Ice­land EU mem­ber­ship, EUob­serv­er, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Ple­narpro­tokoll 17/37, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17037.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010). Ini­tial­ly, the Chris­t­ian Social Union (CSU) warned that it is not the EU’s role to save bank­rupt coun­tries; how­ev­er, it lat­er sup­port­ed Iceland’s acces­sion in the Ger­man par­lia­ment.1616EurAc­tiv: France, Ger­many pon­der Ice­land EU acces­sion fall­out, 10 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Islands EU Beitritt im Blick, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2010/29324587_kw16_sp_eu_island/index.html (last access: 21 Juni 2010).

Con­cern­ing the coun­tries, which are not expect­ed to become mem­bers in the next enlarge­ment round, the acces­sion process in the West­ern Balkan states is con­sid­ered to be too slow and the mem­ber­ship nego­ti­a­tions with Turkey have slowed to a crawl due to var­i­ous reser­va­tions from the EU mem­ber states, rang­ing from speci­fici­ties con­cern­ing trade with Cyprus to the gen­er­al ques­tion of mem­ber­ship.

Western Balkans – cautious enlargement at a snail’s pace

Enlarge­ment and sta­bil­i­ty in the West­ern Balka­ns region is in Germany’s inter­est, an esti­mat­ed 50 per­cent of deputies are said to be knowl­edge­able in the region.1717Antrag der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/106, 1 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Nicole Tepasse: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 21 June 2010). How­ev­er, in a dis­cus­sion on a motion by the Social Democ­rats on the West­ern Balkan coun­tries’ Euro­pean per­spec­tive, Marieluise Beck (Green Par­ty) warned that there is a dan­ger of the West­ern Balkan states being for­got­ten by the EU.1818Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010). This motion stressed the need to con­tin­ue press­ing ahead with the polit­i­cal and eco­nom­ic sta­bil­i­sa­tion of the region. In addi­tion, it asked to react quick­ly, but only if con­di­tions are ful­filled.1919Antrag der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/106, 01 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010). The albeit slow progress shows the impor­tance of a mem­ber­ship per­spec­tive for the sta­bil­i­sa­tion process in the West­ern Balka­ns. In this case as for future enlarge­ments, the gen­er­al opin­ion in the Ger­man polit­i­cal sphere is set both against short cuts on the ful­fil­ment of the acces­sion cri­te­ria and against an auto­mat­ed mem­ber­ship per­spec­tive.

Turkish accession remains point of contention

One of the coun­tries not expect­ed to become a mem­ber in the next enlarge­ment round is Turkey, and dis­cus­sions on the sub­ject remain fre­quent and heat­ed. In gen­er­al, the government’s coali­tion agree­ment sees the mem­ber­ship talks with Turkey as an open-end­ed process. More­over, the ques­tion of Turkey’s mem­ber­ship per­spec­tive is strong­ly com­bined with the process of inte­gra­tion of the three mil­lion strong Turk­ish minor­i­ty into Ger­man soci­ety.

The Ger­man-Turk­ish inter­ac­tions in the report­ing peri­od were intense due to a vis­it by Chan­cel­lor Merkel to Turkey in March 2010. This gained high vis­i­bil­i­ty due to the word bat­tle pre­ced­ing the vis­it, where Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Merkel con­tin­ued to dis­tance them­selves from the other’s opin­ion on Turk­ish schools in Ger­many, Turk­ish EU mem­ber­ship and sanc­tions against Iran.2020Braun, Ste­fan: Gemein­sam lächeln, Süd­deutsche Zeitung, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/267/507426/text/ (last access: 19 May 2010). Already on the way to Ankara and Istan­bul, the Ger­man del­e­ga­tion struck a dif­fer­ent tone, stress­ing the fact that the per­son­al rela­tions between the two politi­cians were excel­lent.2121Ibid. In a speech at the Ger­man-Turk­ish Eco­nom­ic Forum, Angela Merkel called for prag­ma­tism con­cern­ing the ques­tion of Turkey’s full mem­ber­ship to the EU.2222Rede der Bun­deskan­z­lerin beim Deutsch-Türkischen Wirtschafts­fo­rum, Istan­bul, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2010/03/2010–03-30-merkel-istanbul-deutsch-t_C3_BCrkisches-wirtschaftsforum.html (last access: 19 May 2010). Fur­ther­more, she iden­ti­fied the Ankara Agree­ment as the largest bar­ri­er inhibit­ing the open­ing of nego­ti­a­tion chap­ters. There­fore, Turkey first has to clar­i­fy its sit­u­a­tion with Cyprus.2323Regierung online: Deutsch­land und die Türkei: Part­ner in Europa, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2010/03/2010–03-29-ankara-erster-tag-tuerkei.html (last access: 21 June 2010).

One state­ment by Angela Merkel has been repeat­ed in Ger­man media many times, name­ly that she has now under­stood that the expres­sion “priv­i­leged part­ner­ship” has a neg­a­tive con­no­ta­tion in Turkey. This does not mean, how­ev­er, that she is shy­ing away from the con­cept,2424Pressekon­ferenz der Bun­deskan­z­lerin mit Min­is­ter­präsi­dent Erdo­gan, Ankara, 29 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/nn_1516/Content/DE/Mitschrift/Pressekonferenzen/2010/03/2010–03-29-pk-merkel-erdogan.html (last access: 19 May 2010). which she under­stands as a spe­cial rela­tion­ship – a bet­ter and more inten­sive one than with oth­er third states. She also called for con­sid­er­a­tion on whether full mem­ber­ship should still be aspired to by Turkey or not.2525Ibid. How­ev­er, despite the fact that her opin­ion on full mem­ber­ship dif­fers from the Turk­ish one, she stressed the cir­cum­stance that “pacta sunt ser­van­da” and that the nego­ti­a­tions should be con­tin­ued.2626Ibid.

The Ger­man For­eign Min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle also spoke on the EU-Turkey rela­tions, demand­ing the country’s com­mit­ment to reforms.2727Güsten, Susanne: Stör­feuer aus Kreuth reicht bis nach Ankara, Tagesspiegel, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/international/stoerfeuer-aus-kreuth-reicht-bis-nach-ankara/1659932.html (last access: 19 May 2010); EurAc­tiv: West­er­welle fordert Refor­men von der Türkei, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/westerwelle-mahnt-trkei-zu-reformen-002573 (last access: 19 May 2010). Being from a par­ty with a more pos­i­tive stance towards Turk­ish EU-mem­ber­ship, he stressed the fact that Turkey has a right to fair nego­ti­a­tions and that the EU should stick to its con­tracts.2828“Deutsch­land in Europa – eine Stan­dortbes­tim­mung” – Rede von Bun­de­saußen­min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle an der Uni­ver­sität Bonn, 27 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100427-BM-D-in-Europa.html (last access: 19 May 2010). He also referred to the coali­tion agree­ment to point this out. Fur­ther­more, he called for a new dynam­ic in the acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions, which would have to start with set­tling the dis­agree­ments with Cyprus.2929Rede von Außen­min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle anlässlich der Botschafterkon­ferenz des türkischen Außen­min­is­teri­ums in Ankara, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100107-BM-BoKo-Ankara.html (last access: 19 May 2010). As for oth­er Ger­man politi­cians, while Ruprecht Polenz (CDU) says that it would be bet­ter to have Turkey in the EU, but only if it ful­fils the cri­te­ria,3030Bick­erich, Sebas­t­ian: Es wäre bess­er, die Türkei in der EU zu haben, Tagesspiegel, 29 March 2010. the social demo­c­rat Frank-Wal­ter Stein­meier (SPD) stress­es the fact that there is a promise to be kept as regards Turkey.3131EurAc­tiv: Stein­meier: Der Türkei sind wir im Wort, 29 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/steinmeier-der-trkei-sind-wir-im-wort-002665 (last access: 19 May 2010).

ENP and presidential elections in Ukraine

In gen­er­al, the Euro­pean Neigh­bour­hood Pol­i­cy (ENP) and its two region­al projects, the Union for the Mediter­ranean and even more so the East­ern Part­ner­ship, are pos­i­tive­ly assessed in Ger­many. The coali­tion agree­ment sup­ports a fur­ther devel­op­ment of these poli­cies, espe­cial­ly of the East­ern Part­ner­ship, based on com­mon val­ues.3232CDU.de: Wach­s­tum. Bil­dung. Zusam­men­halt. Der Koali­tionsver­trag zwis­chen CDU, CSU und FDP, 17. Legi­s­traturpe­ri­ode, avail­able at: http://www.cdu.de/doc/pdfc/091026-koalitionsvertrag-cducsu-fdp.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).

Due to the pres­i­den­tial elec­tions in Ukraine, this coun­try was a focal point con­cern­ing the ENP dur­ing the report­ing peri­od. In an arti­cle in the Finan­cial Times Deutsch­land, Gui­do West­er­welle, togeth­er with the Czech For­eign Min­is­ter Jan Kohout, stressed the fact that the new­ly elect­ed Ukrain­ian Pres­i­dent, Vik­tor Yanukovych, wants to and should anchor Ukraine even more strong­ly with­in Euro­pean norms and val­ues.3333West­er­welle, Gui­do /Kohout, Jan: Die Part­ner im Osten müssen ins Boot, Finan­cial Times Deutsch­land, 4 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Interviews/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 19 May 2010).

Accord­ing to Cor­nelia Pieper, Min­is­ter of State at the Fed­er­al For­eign Office, the Ger­man gov­ern­ment has a con­sid­er­able inter­est in a stronger polit­i­cal and eco­nom­ic rap­proche­ment of Ukraine to the EU and would wel­come a near con­clu­sion of the nego­ti­a­tions on an asso­ci­a­tion agree­ment.3434Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Ple­narpro­tokoll 17/21, 9 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17021.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010). How­ev­er, although Ukraine is an impor­tant part­ner in the East­ern Part­ner­ship, a mem­ber­ship per­spec­tive is not on the agen­da.

    Footnotes

  • 1Wet­tach, Silke: Erweiterung, Staat­en pochen wieder an die Tur, WirtschaftsWoche, 17 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.wiwo.de/politik-weltwirtschaft/erweiterung-staaten-pochen-wieder-an-die-tuer-416739/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 2Euro­pean Com­mis­sion: Euro­barom­e­ter 71 – Nation­al Report – Exec­u­tive Sum­ma­ry Ger­many, Spring 2009, avail­able at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb71/eb71_de_en_exec.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 3Kacz­marek, Michael: Enzens­berg­er: EU ist “gren­z­los größen­wahnsin­nig”, EurAc­tiv, 2 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/enzensberger-eu-ist-grenzenlos-grenwahnsinnig-002680 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 4EurAc­tiv: Ver­heugen: Erweiterung hat “unaufhalt­same Dynamik”, 26 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/unternehmen-und-arbeit-000315/artikel/verheugen-erweiterung-hat-unaufhaltsame-dynamik-002650 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 5Pries, Knut: Ger­many declines to set date for Croatia’s EU entry, EUob­serv­er, 5 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://waz.euobserver.com/?aid=29416 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 6Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Teilung Bosniens kommt nicht in Frage, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 3 Feb­ru­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Josipović will Stre­it­fra­gen mit Bel­grad bei­le­gen, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 19 Jan­u­ary 2010; Wes­sel, Rein­hard: Von Sanad­er zu Kosor; von Mesić zu Josipović – Die Neuord­nung des poli­tis­chen Sys­tems in Kroa­t­ien im Jahr 2009/2010, coun­try report of the Kon­rad Ade­nauer Stiftung, 18 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_18988-544–1‑30.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Kon­ser­v­a­tive Stim­men für den Roten, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 12 Jan­u­ary 2010; Wes­sels, Rein­hard: Kroa­t­ien bekommt einen neuen Staat­spräsi­den­ten, coun­try report of the Kon­rad Ade­nauer Stiftung, 11 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.kas.de/proj/home/pub/40/1/year-2010/dokument_id-18572/index.html (last access: 19 May 2010); Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Ein grund­solid­er Favorit und ein aggres­siv­er Geg­n­er, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 9 Jan­u­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Sanad­er kündigt poli­tis­che Rück­kehr an, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 9 Jan­u­ary 2010; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Stich­wahl in Kroa­t­ien zwis­chen Josipović und Bandić, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 29 Decem­ber 2009; Schwarz, Karl-Peter: Gegenkan­di­dat­en aus dem eige­nen Lager, Frank­furter All­ge­meine Zeitung, 24 Decem­ber 2009.
  • 7EurAc­tiv: Croatia’s acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions set to con­clude this year, 11 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/croatias-accession-negotiations-set-conclude-year (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 8Blo­gac­tiv: Island und die neuen Rechte des Bun­destages, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://nachbar.blogactiv.eu/2010/04/22/island-und-die-neuen-rechte-des-bundestages/ (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valenti­na: Ger­man house in land­mark vote on Ice­land EU mem­ber­ship, EUob­serv­er, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 9EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 10Antrag der Frak­tio­nen der CDU/CSU und FDP, Druck­sache 17/1190, 24 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701190.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Diet­mar Nietan et. al. und der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/1163, 23 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/011/1701163.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Dr. Diether Dehm et. al. und der Frak­tion DIE LINKE, Druck­sache 17/1059, 16 March 2010, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/010/1701059.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Antrag der Abge­ord­neten Manuel Sar­razin et. al. und der Frak­tion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, Druck­sache 17/271, 16 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/002/1700271.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 11Sach, Annette: Am Rande des Vulka­ns, Das Par­la­ment, 26 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.das-parlament.de/2010/17/EuropaWelt/29450444.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 12EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 13Schymik, Carsten: Islands Volksab­stim­mung über Ice­save, SWP-Aktuell 14, Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/common/get_document.php?asset_id=6797 (last access: 19 May 2010); Zeit online: 93 Prozent der Islän­der sagen Nein zu Schulden­til­gung, 7 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2010–03/island-referendum-schulden (last access: 10 June 2010).
  • 14EurAc­tiv: France, Ger­many pon­der Ice­land EU acces­sion fall­out, 10 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 15EurAc­tiv: Pre­miere im Bun­destag: Grünes Licht für neue Beitrittsver­hand­lun­gen, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/premiere-bundestag-erstmals-ber-eu-beitrittskandidaten-abgestimmt-002992 (last access: 19 May 2010); Pop, Valenti­na: Ger­man house in land­mark vote on Ice­land EU mem­ber­ship, EUob­serv­er, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://euobserver.com/15/29913 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Ple­narpro­tokoll 17/37, 22 April 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17037.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 16EurAc­tiv: France, Ger­many pon­der Ice­land EU acces­sion fall­out, 10 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/france-germany-ponder-iceland-eu-accession-fallout/article-188216 (last access: 19 May 2010); Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Islands EU Beitritt im Blick, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2010/29324587_kw16_sp_eu_island/index.html (last access: 21 Juni 2010).
  • 17Antrag der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/106, 1 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010); Nicole Tepasse: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 18Tepasse, Nicole: Bosnien “auf der Kippe”, Das Par­la­ment, 7 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/50/EuropaWelt/28050693.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 19Antrag der Frak­tion der SPD, Druck­sache 17/106, 01 Decem­ber 2009, avail­able at: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/001/1700106.pdf (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 20Braun, Ste­fan: Gemein­sam lächeln, Süd­deutsche Zeitung, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/267/507426/text/ (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 21Ibid.
  • 22Rede der Bun­deskan­z­lerin beim Deutsch-Türkischen Wirtschafts­fo­rum, Istan­bul, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2010/03/2010–03-30-merkel-istanbul-deutsch-t_C3_BCrkisches-wirtschaftsforum.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 23Regierung online: Deutsch­land und die Türkei: Part­ner in Europa, 30 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2010/03/2010–03-29-ankara-erster-tag-tuerkei.html (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 24Pressekon­ferenz der Bun­deskan­z­lerin mit Min­is­ter­präsi­dent Erdo­gan, Ankara, 29 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/nn_1516/Content/DE/Mitschrift/Pressekonferenzen/2010/03/2010–03-29-pk-merkel-erdogan.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 25Ibid.
  • 26Ibid.
  • 27Güsten, Susanne: Stör­feuer aus Kreuth reicht bis nach Ankara, Tagesspiegel, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/international/stoerfeuer-aus-kreuth-reicht-bis-nach-ankara/1659932.html (last access: 19 May 2010); EurAc­tiv: West­er­welle fordert Refor­men von der Türkei, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/westerwelle-mahnt-trkei-zu-reformen-002573 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 28“Deutsch­land in Europa – eine Stan­dortbes­tim­mung” – Rede von Bun­de­saußen­min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle an der Uni­ver­sität Bonn, 27 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100427-BM-D-in-Europa.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 29Rede von Außen­min­is­ter Gui­do West­er­welle anlässlich der Botschafterkon­ferenz des türkischen Außen­min­is­teri­ums in Ankara, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2010/100107-BM-BoKo-Ankara.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 30Bick­erich, Sebas­t­ian: Es wäre bess­er, die Türkei in der EU zu haben, Tagesspiegel, 29 March 2010.
  • 31EurAc­tiv: Stein­meier: Der Türkei sind wir im Wort, 29 Jan­u­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.euractiv.de/erweiterung-und-partnerschaft/artikel/steinmeier-der-trkei-sind-wir-im-wort-002665 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 32CDU.de: Wach­s­tum. Bil­dung. Zusam­men­halt. Der Koali­tionsver­trag zwis­chen CDU, CSU und FDP, 17. Legi­s­traturpe­ri­ode, avail­able at: http://www.cdu.de/doc/pdfc/091026-koalitionsvertrag-cducsu-fdp.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).
  • 33West­er­welle, Gui­do /Kohout, Jan: Die Part­ner im Osten müssen ins Boot, Finan­cial Times Deutsch­land, 4 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Infoservice/Presse/Interviews/2010/100304-BM-Kohout-FTD.html (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 34Deutsch­er Bun­destag: Ple­narpro­tokoll 17/21, 9 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btp/17/17021.pdf (last access: 21 June 2010).

The reports focus on a report­ing peri­od from Decem­ber 2009 until May 2010. This sur­vey was con­duct­ed on the basis of a ques­tion­naire that has been elab­o­rat­ed in March and April 2010. Most of the 31 reports were deliv­ered in May 2010.

The EU-27 Watch No. 9 receives sig­nif­i­cant fund­ing from the Otto Wolff-Foun­da­tion, Cologne, in the frame­work of the ‘Dia­log Europa der Otto Wolff-Stiftung’, and finan­cial sup­port from the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion. The Euro­pean Com­mis­sion is not respon­si­ble for any use that may be made of the infor­ma­tion con­tained there­in.