Croatia will be next

Unanimous belief that Croatia will be the 28th EU member

The polit­i­cal elite express con­fi­dence that Croa­t­ia will be the next mem­ber state of the EU. Prime Min­is­ter Jad­ran­ka Kosor under­lines that it is her belief, and that of her gov­ern­ment, that Croa­t­ia will con­clude nego­ti­a­tions this year and is first in line for the next round of enlarge­ment.11Marinko Petkovic: Croa­t­ia receives sup­port on Euro­pean path, Vjes­nik, 9 April 2010; gov­ern­ment of the Repub­lic of Croa­t­ia: Prime Min­is­ter meets the Com­mis­sion­er for Region­al Pol­i­cy, press release, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.hr/en/aktualne_teme_i_projekti/aktualne_teme/hrvatska_i_eu (last access: 13 May 2010); gov­ern­ment of the Repub­lic of Croa­t­ia: Prime Min­is­ter receives Euro­pean Par­lia­ment del­e­ga­tion, press release, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.hr/en/naslovnica/priopcenja_za_javnost/2010/ozujak/predsjednica_vlade_s_izaslanstvom_europskog_parlamenta (last access: 13 May 2010). This belief is reit­er­at­ed by EU offi­cials. Ste­fan Füle expects Croa­t­ia to be able to con­clude nego­ti­a­tions in 2010, which means that the entry year could be 2012.22Juri­ca Köbler: Croa­t­ia first in line for enlarge­ment, Vjes­nik, 2 Feb­ru­ary 2010; Augustin Palokaj: Prime Min­is­ter Kosor and Euro­pean Enlarge­ment Com­mis­sion­er Füle dis­cuss com­ple­tion of EU entry talks this year, Jutarn­ji list, 25 Feb­ru­ary 2010. All par­lia­men­tary par­ties sub­scribe to this view. Ves­na Pusić,33Ves­na Pusić is a for­mer leader and now in the lead­er­ship of the Croa­t­ian People’s Par­ty. She was also a can­di­date in the last pres­i­den­tial elec­tions, but lost in the first round. the Pres­i­dent of the Nation­al Com­mit­tee for Mon­i­tor­ing Acces­sion Nego­ti­a­tions, expressed con­vic­tion that Croa­t­ia could, but was doubt­ful whether this gov­ern­ment can con­clude nego­ti­a­tions this year.44Ves­na Pusić speak­ing in Varaždin at the event mark­ing Euro­pean Day and the 65th anniver­sary of the vic­to­ry over fas­cism, 8 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vesna-pusic.hns.hr/clanak.php?id=139250 (last access: 15 May 2010).

The con­fer­ence “Croa­t­ia on the Eve of the EU Acces­sion: the Path of Reform”, which took place in Zagreb on 29 and 30 April 2010, also dis­cussed the issue thor­ough­ly. All par­tic­i­pants sup­port­ed Croa­t­ian EU mem­ber­ship, said to also have a pos­i­tive effect on the South­east Euro­pean region, but more effort had to be invest­ed in the fields of the judi­cia­ry, pub­lic admin­is­tra­tion, the fight against cor­rup­tion, and com­pe­ti­tion pol­i­cy.55A detailed report on the Con­fer­ence is avail­able at: http://www.imo.hr/node/825 (last access: 19 May 2010). The main prob­lem was how to con­vince chief pros­e­cu­tor of the Inter­na­tion­al Crim­i­nal Tri­bunal for the for­mer Yugoslavia (ICTY) Serge Bram­mertz that Croa­t­ia was not in the pos­ses­sion of the wartime artillery log­books request­ed for the tri­al pro­ceed­ings against the three Croa­t­ian gen­er­als.66Sto­jan de Pra­to: Because of artillery log­books EU again waits for Bram­mertz, 14 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/zbog-topnickih-dnevnika-eu-opet-ceka-brammertza-clanak-126059 (last access: 16 May 2010); Chief pros­e­cu­tor of Inter­na­tion­al Crim­i­nal Tri­bunal for the for­mer Yugoslavia in The Hague, Serge Bram­mertz, said he still expect­ed Croa­t­ia to deliv­er the doc­u­ments sought by his office, adding that he would be able to make the final assess­ment of Croatia’s coop­er­a­tion with the tri­bunal only after vis­it­ing Zagreb in three weeks time, tportal.hr, 28 April 2010, avail­able at: http://daily.tportal.hr/65699/Brammertz-says-will-assess-Croatia-s-cooperation-in-3-weeks.html (last access: 16 May 2010); Ire­na Frlan: From the Hague to the stars, Novi list, 1 Feb­ru­ary 2010. Zoran Milanović, leader of the main oppo­si­tion par­ty, the Social Democ­rats (SDP), spoke about the need to dif­fer­en­ti­ate between very impor­tant and less impor­tant issues at a meet­ing of Euro­pean Social­ists in Brus­sels. Imple­ment­ing reforms77Con­sid­er­able effort is invest­ed to build the social con­sen­sus for exten­sive reform process. Talk­ing to jour­nal­ists on 12 Jan­u­ary 2010 after the Eco­nom­ic and Social Coun­cil meet­ing in which he received the unan­i­mous sup­port from the Coun­cil to car­ry out jus­tice reforms, Ivan Šimonivić, the Min­is­ter of Jus­tice, said that such sup­port is what builds con­sen­sus, the Union of the Autonomous Trade Unions in Croa­t­ia web­site, avail­able at: http://www.sssh.hr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1597 (last access: 20 May 2010). and depoliti­cis­ing the judi­cia­ry and police is more impor­tant than locat­ing artillery log­books.88SDP: In Chap­ter 23 to focus on nec­es­sary reforms, Brus­sels, 12 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.sdp.hr/vijesti/aktualno/u‑poglavlju-23-usredotociti-se-na-nuzne-reforme (last access: 20 May 2010). Ves­na Pusić saw this as an iron­ic twist of fate for Croa­t­ia. In her opin­ion, Croa­t­ian soci­ety had matured to the point that nobody could win any votes on an issue whether five pages or five tons of doc­u­ments were sent to the Hague Tri­bunal.99She thinks that the gov­ern­ment should do all it can to con­vince the chief pros­e­cu­tor that Croa­t­ia is not in the pos­ses­sion of the request­ed doc­u­ments and that it should do so in the next cou­ple of months before the cur­rent Min­is­ter of Jus­tice, Ivan Šimonović, who has been appoint­ed a UN Deputy Sec­re­tary-Gen­er­al for human rights, will leave for New York in mid August. His pres­ence in the nego­ti­a­tions adds to Croatia’s cred­i­bil­i­ty. Rozi­ta Vuković: Lib­er­als are not essen­tial for the HNS-SDP coali­tion, Jutarn­ji list, 15 May 2010.

On 14 June 2010, Bram­mertz report­ed that some of the request­ed doc­u­ments were still miss­ing, but con­clud­ed that this fact should no longer block Croatia’s acces­sion.1010In rela­tion to the coop­er­a­tion of Croa­t­ia, the pros­e­cu­tor stat­ed that the “the issue of the miss­ing impor­tant doc­u­ments relat­ed to Oper­a­tion Storm in 1995 remains out­stand­ing”. The Pros­e­cu­tor informed the Coun­cil that he had been assured by Croa­t­ian author­i­ties that the activ­i­ties sug­gest­ed by his office one year ago will be under­tak­en and that Croa­t­ia will inten­si­fy its admin­is­tra­tive inves­ti­ga­tion. He also expressed hope that these activ­i­ties will result in effec­tive action and con­crete results and that Croa­t­ia will ful­ly account for the miss­ing doc­u­ments. Pros­e­cu­tor Brammertz’s address before the Secu­ri­ty Coun­cil, press release, ICTY, 18 June 2010, avail­able at: http://www.icty.org/sid/10423 (last access: 09 July 2010); the chief pros­e­cu­tor “gave us a pass, in spite of artillery log­books”, wrote Augustin Palokaj: Croa­t­ia opens remain­ing chap­ters on 30 June, Jutarn­ji list, 14 June 2010. The remain­ing three chap­ters – Judi­cia­ry and Fun­da­men­tal Rights, Com­pe­ti­tion Pol­i­cy and For­eign, Secu­ri­ty and Defence Pol­i­cy – were opened on 30 June 2010.1111“By open­ing the last three chap­ters […] Croa­t­ia made the step-of-no-return towards the mem­ber­ship”, wrote August­ing Palokaj: The last three chap­ters opened, Jutarn­ji list, 1 July 2010; News sec­tion of t‑portal: Croa­t­ia in the last 500 meters of the EU marathon, 30 June 2010, avail­able at http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/75079/Hrvatska-u-zadnjih-500-metara-EU-maratona.html (last access: 09 July 2010).

Goran Čular, who teach­es Croa­t­ian pol­i­tics at the Fac­ul­ty of Polit­i­cal Sci­ence in Zagreb, dis­cuss­es an awk­ward posi­tion in which the polit­i­cal elite in Croa­t­ia are in favour of join­ing the EU while pub­lic sup­port remains around 50 per­cent. The gov­ern­ment ini­ti­at­ed changes in ref­er­en­dum pro­ce­dures with the goal to increase the prob­a­bil­i­ty of secur­ing the major­i­ty of votes for entry into the EU. Čular argues that this engi­neer­ing process reduces the legit­i­ma­cy of Croa­t­ian acces­sion to the EU.1212Goran Čular: Deci­sions and rit­u­als, Poli­tičke anal­ize, Vol 1 No 1, Feb­ru­ary 2010, pp. 22–26.

On Ice­land, the Min­istry of For­eign Affairs and Euro­pean Inte­gra­tion pub­lished the Euro­pean Commission’s infor­ma­tion on the results of the ref­er­en­dum in which 93 per­cent of Iceland’s cit­i­zens vot­ed against refund­ing for­eign cit­i­zens their sav­ings in Ice­save.1313The Euro­pean Com­mis­sion stressed that Iceland’s acces­sion to the EU has noth­ing to do with the Ice­save affair, 10 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mvpei.hr/ei/default.asp?ru=1&gl=201003100000003&sid=&jezik=1 (last access: 18 May 2010). Ban­ka Mag­a­zine stressed that Island’s appli­ca­tion for EU mem­ber­ship has been main­ly urged by the harsh con­se­quences of the eco­nom­ic and finan­cial cri­sis.1414Deutsche Welle/Banka Mag­a­zine: Heavy cri­sis push­es Ice­land to EU mem­ber­ship, 25 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bankamagazine.hr/Naslovnica/Vijesti/Umre%C5%BEi/tabid/320/View/Details/ItemID/57840/ttl/Deutsche-Welle-Teska-kriza-tjera-Island-u-EU/Default.aspx (last access: 18 May 2010). The Enlarge­ment Com­mis­sion­er, Ste­fan Füle, when asked direct­ly whether Ice­land can enter the EU togeth­er with Croa­t­ia, answered very vague­ly that “it is not the Commission’s job to cre­ate timeta­bles”.1515Poslovni.hr: EU Com­mis­sion rec­om­mend­ed open­ing acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions with Ice­land, 24 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.poslovni.hr/140718.aspx (last access: 15 May 2010). Most recent­ly, the media pub­lished that the nego­ti­a­tions with Ice­land would open in June 2010.1616The EC rec­om­mend­ed open­ing nego­ti­a­tions with Ice­land, how­ev­er with­out a date, 11 May 2010, avail­able at: http://dalje.com/hr-svijet/odluka-o-pregovorima-eu-i-islanda-u-lipnju/304963 (last access: 18 May 2010).

It is in Croatia’s interest that all countries in the European southeast join the EU

Croa­t­ian entry into the EU is seen as a pos­i­tive pull for oth­er South­east Euro­pean (SEE) coun­tries.1717At the meet­ing of lib­er­al demo­c­ra­t­ic par­ties from West­ern Balka­ns, held in Sara­je­vo on 7 May 2010, Ves­na Pusić said that Croa­t­ia has a duty to use its expe­ri­ence to help coun­tries in the region suc­cess­ful­ly car­ry out reforms required for EU mem­ber­ship. See: HRT: Lib­er­al democ­rats for West­ern Balka­ns, avail­able at: http://www.hrt.hr/index.php?id=48&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=23&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=72390&cHash=d8c5db1941 (last access: 15 May 2010). At the sum­mit of SEE lead­ers, Prime Min­is­ter Kosor sup­port­ed a Euro-Atlantic per­spec­tive to the region of SEE.1818Ser­bian Pres­i­dent Tadić did not attend the sum­mit since Kosovo’s Prime Min­is­ter was there. Kosor expressed hope that the next sum­mit would include lead­ers from the entire region. Ivan Bot­teri: Kosor sent a mes­sage to Tadić: ‘EU path requires some courage’, Slo­bod­na dal­maci­ja, 21 March 2010; media sees it as an act of good­will and good neigh­bourly rela­tions that Croa­t­ia has hand­ed the trans­la­tion of the acquis com­mu­nau­taire to its SEE neigh­bours, said to cost 8 mil­lion Euros. David Hud­son, Head of the Polit­i­cal Sec­tion of the EU Del­e­ga­tion to Croa­t­ia, speak­ing at the ear­li­er men­tioned con­fer­ence “Croa­t­ia on the Eve of the EU Acces­sion: the Path of Reform”, said that the knowl­edge and under­stand­ing of the West­ern Balka­ns which Croa­t­ia brings into the EU is a strong asset. Dun­ja Jevak, Head of the Depart­ment for Bosnia and Herze­gov­ina, Mon­tene­gro and Ser­bia at the Min­istry of For­eign Affairs and Euro­pean Inte­gra­tion, spoke about Croa­t­ia as a fac­tor of sta­bil­i­ty in the region seen through region­al incen­tives and NATO mem­ber­ship.1919Avail­able at: http://www.imo.hr/node/825 (last access: 19 May 2010).

Croatia interested in cooperation with the Union for the Mediterranean

Croa­t­ia, as a mem­ber of the Union for the Mediter­ranean, active­ly par­tic­i­pates in min­is­te­r­i­al con­fer­ences.2020The last one was the Con­fer­ence of Water Man­age­ment Min­is­ters in Barcelona, 13 April 2010. How­ev­er, there is a per­cep­tion that more could be done in strength­en­ing the Union for the Mediter­ranean and mak­ing its frame­work more effec­tive. 72 per­cent of Croatia’s trade exchange is with Mediter­ranean coun­tries, with exports worth 9.6 bil­lion US-Dol­lars.2121Jago­da Vukušić: Mediter­ranean is the biggest trade part­ner of Croa­t­ia, inter­view with Tonči Tadić, Pres­i­dent of the Euro-Mediter­ranean Forum, Novi list, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010. These facts under­score the inter­est the coun­try has for dif­fer­ent forums for coop­er­a­tion with­in the Mediter­ranean region.

    Footnotes

  • 1Marinko Petkovic: Croa­t­ia receives sup­port on Euro­pean path, Vjes­nik, 9 April 2010; gov­ern­ment of the Repub­lic of Croa­t­ia: Prime Min­is­ter meets the Com­mis­sion­er for Region­al Pol­i­cy, press release, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.hr/en/aktualne_teme_i_projekti/aktualne_teme/hrvatska_i_eu (last access: 13 May 2010); gov­ern­ment of the Repub­lic of Croa­t­ia: Prime Min­is­ter receives Euro­pean Par­lia­ment del­e­ga­tion, press release, avail­able at: http://www.vlada.hr/en/naslovnica/priopcenja_za_javnost/2010/ozujak/predsjednica_vlade_s_izaslanstvom_europskog_parlamenta (last access: 13 May 2010).
  • 2Juri­ca Köbler: Croa­t­ia first in line for enlarge­ment, Vjes­nik, 2 Feb­ru­ary 2010; Augustin Palokaj: Prime Min­is­ter Kosor and Euro­pean Enlarge­ment Com­mis­sion­er Füle dis­cuss com­ple­tion of EU entry talks this year, Jutarn­ji list, 25 Feb­ru­ary 2010.
  • 3Ves­na Pusić is a for­mer leader and now in the lead­er­ship of the Croa­t­ian People’s Par­ty. She was also a can­di­date in the last pres­i­den­tial elec­tions, but lost in the first round.
  • 4Ves­na Pusić speak­ing in Varaždin at the event mark­ing Euro­pean Day and the 65th anniver­sary of the vic­to­ry over fas­cism, 8 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vesna-pusic.hns.hr/clanak.php?id=139250 (last access: 15 May 2010).
  • 5A detailed report on the Con­fer­ence is avail­able at: http://www.imo.hr/node/825 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 6Sto­jan de Pra­to: Because of artillery log­books EU again waits for Bram­mertz, 14 April 2010, avail­able at: http://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/zbog-topnickih-dnevnika-eu-opet-ceka-brammertza-clanak-126059 (last access: 16 May 2010); Chief pros­e­cu­tor of Inter­na­tion­al Crim­i­nal Tri­bunal for the for­mer Yugoslavia in The Hague, Serge Bram­mertz, said he still expect­ed Croa­t­ia to deliv­er the doc­u­ments sought by his office, adding that he would be able to make the final assess­ment of Croatia’s coop­er­a­tion with the tri­bunal only after vis­it­ing Zagreb in three weeks time, tportal.hr, 28 April 2010, avail­able at: http://daily.tportal.hr/65699/Brammertz-says-will-assess-Croatia-s-cooperation-in-3-weeks.html (last access: 16 May 2010); Ire­na Frlan: From the Hague to the stars, Novi list, 1 Feb­ru­ary 2010.
  • 7Con­sid­er­able effort is invest­ed to build the social con­sen­sus for exten­sive reform process. Talk­ing to jour­nal­ists on 12 Jan­u­ary 2010 after the Eco­nom­ic and Social Coun­cil meet­ing in which he received the unan­i­mous sup­port from the Coun­cil to car­ry out jus­tice reforms, Ivan Šimonivić, the Min­is­ter of Jus­tice, said that such sup­port is what builds con­sen­sus, the Union of the Autonomous Trade Unions in Croa­t­ia web­site, avail­able at: http://www.sssh.hr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1597 (last access: 20 May 2010).
  • 8SDP: In Chap­ter 23 to focus on nec­es­sary reforms, Brus­sels, 12 May 2010, avail­able at: http://www.sdp.hr/vijesti/aktualno/u‑poglavlju-23-usredotociti-se-na-nuzne-reforme (last access: 20 May 2010).
  • 9She thinks that the gov­ern­ment should do all it can to con­vince the chief pros­e­cu­tor that Croa­t­ia is not in the pos­ses­sion of the request­ed doc­u­ments and that it should do so in the next cou­ple of months before the cur­rent Min­is­ter of Jus­tice, Ivan Šimonović, who has been appoint­ed a UN Deputy Sec­re­tary-Gen­er­al for human rights, will leave for New York in mid August. His pres­ence in the nego­ti­a­tions adds to Croatia’s cred­i­bil­i­ty. Rozi­ta Vuković: Lib­er­als are not essen­tial for the HNS-SDP coali­tion, Jutarn­ji list, 15 May 2010.
  • 10In rela­tion to the coop­er­a­tion of Croa­t­ia, the pros­e­cu­tor stat­ed that the “the issue of the miss­ing impor­tant doc­u­ments relat­ed to Oper­a­tion Storm in 1995 remains out­stand­ing”. The Pros­e­cu­tor informed the Coun­cil that he had been assured by Croa­t­ian author­i­ties that the activ­i­ties sug­gest­ed by his office one year ago will be under­tak­en and that Croa­t­ia will inten­si­fy its admin­is­tra­tive inves­ti­ga­tion. He also expressed hope that these activ­i­ties will result in effec­tive action and con­crete results and that Croa­t­ia will ful­ly account for the miss­ing doc­u­ments. Pros­e­cu­tor Brammertz’s address before the Secu­ri­ty Coun­cil, press release, ICTY, 18 June 2010, avail­able at: http://www.icty.org/sid/10423 (last access: 09 July 2010); the chief pros­e­cu­tor “gave us a pass, in spite of artillery log­books”, wrote Augustin Palokaj: Croa­t­ia opens remain­ing chap­ters on 30 June, Jutarn­ji list, 14 June 2010.
  • 11“By open­ing the last three chap­ters […] Croa­t­ia made the step-of-no-return towards the mem­ber­ship”, wrote August­ing Palokaj: The last three chap­ters opened, Jutarn­ji list, 1 July 2010; News sec­tion of t‑portal: Croa­t­ia in the last 500 meters of the EU marathon, 30 June 2010, avail­able at http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/75079/Hrvatska-u-zadnjih-500-metara-EU-maratona.html (last access: 09 July 2010).
  • 12Goran Čular: Deci­sions and rit­u­als, Poli­tičke anal­ize, Vol 1 No 1, Feb­ru­ary 2010, pp. 22–26.
  • 13The Euro­pean Com­mis­sion stressed that Iceland’s acces­sion to the EU has noth­ing to do with the Ice­save affair, 10 March 2010, avail­able at: http://www.mvpei.hr/ei/default.asp?ru=1&gl=201003100000003&sid=&jezik=1 (last access: 18 May 2010).
  • 14Deutsche Welle/Banka Mag­a­zine: Heavy cri­sis push­es Ice­land to EU mem­ber­ship, 25 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.bankamagazine.hr/Naslovnica/Vijesti/Umre%C5%BEi/tabid/320/View/Details/ItemID/57840/ttl/Deutsche-Welle-Teska-kriza-tjera-Island-u-EU/Default.aspx (last access: 18 May 2010).
  • 15Poslovni.hr: EU Com­mis­sion rec­om­mend­ed open­ing acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions with Ice­land, 24 Feb­ru­ary 2010, avail­able at: http://www.poslovni.hr/140718.aspx (last access: 15 May 2010).
  • 16The EC rec­om­mend­ed open­ing nego­ti­a­tions with Ice­land, how­ev­er with­out a date, 11 May 2010, avail­able at: http://dalje.com/hr-svijet/odluka-o-pregovorima-eu-i-islanda-u-lipnju/304963 (last access: 18 May 2010).
  • 17At the meet­ing of lib­er­al demo­c­ra­t­ic par­ties from West­ern Balka­ns, held in Sara­je­vo on 7 May 2010, Ves­na Pusić said that Croa­t­ia has a duty to use its expe­ri­ence to help coun­tries in the region suc­cess­ful­ly car­ry out reforms required for EU mem­ber­ship. See: HRT: Lib­er­al democ­rats for West­ern Balka­ns, avail­able at: http://www.hrt.hr/index.php?id=48&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=23&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=72390&cHash=d8c5db1941 (last access: 15 May 2010).
  • 18Ser­bian Pres­i­dent Tadić did not attend the sum­mit since Kosovo’s Prime Min­is­ter was there. Kosor expressed hope that the next sum­mit would include lead­ers from the entire region. Ivan Bot­teri: Kosor sent a mes­sage to Tadić: ‘EU path requires some courage’, Slo­bod­na dal­maci­ja, 21 March 2010; media sees it as an act of good­will and good neigh­bourly rela­tions that Croa­t­ia has hand­ed the trans­la­tion of the acquis com­mu­nau­taire to its SEE neigh­bours, said to cost 8 mil­lion Euros.
  • 19Avail­able at: http://www.imo.hr/node/825 (last access: 19 May 2010).
  • 20The last one was the Con­fer­ence of Water Man­age­ment Min­is­ters in Barcelona, 13 April 2010.
  • 21Jago­da Vukušić: Mediter­ranean is the biggest trade part­ner of Croa­t­ia, inter­view with Tonči Tadić, Pres­i­dent of the Euro-Mediter­ranean Forum, Novi list, 7 Jan­u­ary 2010.

The reports focus on a report­ing peri­od from Decem­ber 2009 until May 2010. This sur­vey was con­duct­ed on the basis of a ques­tion­naire that has been elab­o­rat­ed in March and April 2010. Most of the 31 reports were deliv­ered in May 2010.

The EU-27 Watch No. 9 receives sig­nif­i­cant fund­ing from the Otto Wolff-Foun­da­tion, Cologne, in the frame­work of the ‘Dia­log Europa der Otto Wolff-Stiftung’, and finan­cial sup­port from the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion. The Euro­pean Com­mis­sion is not respon­si­ble for any use that may be made of the infor­ma­tion con­tained there­in.