Quiet… And not very interested?

1. How does the future of the EU after the Irish ‘No’ look like?

 

Conclusions of the European Council of December 2008 on the fate of the Lisbon Treaty

In general, the main attention after the European Council was on the decisions about economy and climate, with the conclusions on the Lisbon Treaty getting only scant attention. Officially, optimism towards the treaty entering into force was maintained: Olli Rehn, the EU Commissioner for enlargement, said that he is confident that the Lisbon Treaty will take effect.[1]

As to what kind of end result the decision to hold another referendum in Ireland will have, many pointed out that the financial crisis has shown Ireland how much it has to gain from its membership; without being a member of the monetary union, it would have suffered the same fate as Iceland. It is hoped that the financial crisis gives the key to unlock the situation and get the Lisbon Treaty ratified.[2]

The True Finns (Perussuomalaiset[3]), a party critical towards the EU, commented on the decision to hold another referendum in Ireland by saying that “when a small nation is being humiliated like that, it is humiliating even for the onlookers”[4]. Timo Soini, chairman of the party, used this argument to motivate the party to take an active role in the campaign for its anti-EU candidates to be elected to the European Parliament.[5]

European Parliament elections

Based on surveys on the support for national parties, it seemed in January that the true Finns would indeed get at least one seat in the European Parliament. Thus, Soini’s opinions (see above) may have some resonance in the electorate also with regard to the specific question of how Ireland was treated.[6] This received a lot of media attention and alarmed other parties.[7] Apart from this, the public discussion about the elections was still scheduled to start. Many journalists brought up the fact that according to the latest Eurobarometer, Finns were the Europeans least likely to know when the next European Parliaments elections are to take place. According to them, this reflected the Finnish disinterest in the elections.[8]

Formation of the new Commission

All in all, the new Commission did not emerge as a discussion topic. There were a few expressions of satisfaction due to the decision to not rotate the seats in Commission as a concession to the Irish.[9] Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen outlined that it is too early to start speculating about the candidates before it is known which treaty will be implemented.[10] As to how the Commission would be formed, Minister of Migration and European Affairs, Astrid Thors, predicted that the president of the new Commission would be chosen after the European Parliament elections, and the rest of the Commission once it is known which treaty rules will be followed.[11]

Appointment of the High Representative

Member of the European Parliament, Ville Itälä, suggested that if the Lisbon Treaty is implemented, Finland should campaign for Olli Rehn, the European Commissioner for Enlargement, to be appointed to the position of the High Representative.[12] Thus, public discussion about the appointment of the High Representative concentrated on gathering widespread national support for Olli Rehn.[13] It was also suggested that Finland should campaign for both one male and one female candidate to show that it promotes gender equality.[14] Very little was said about how the Lisbon Treaty would change the role of the High Representative, instead, the issue was approached from the point of view of who would be appointed. A central concern was whether it would turn out impossible for a candidate from a small member state to be selected. Tony Blair was among the most often mentioned non-Finnish names to the new top posts.[15]

In the context of the more general discussion about the appointments, it was at times remarked that the treaty does not make clear distinctions between the competences of the Council President, Commission President and High Representative, which may complicate matters.[16]

Concerns about the long term

There was little discussion about the long-term implications. When discussed, a fairly typical approach was that of the main opposition party, the Social Democrats. While they strongly supported the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, their leader pointed out that the Irish referendum is a warning which the Union should take seriously. The Union needs to take measures to increase trust amongst the citizens.[17]

Speaking to the Finnish Heads of Missions, Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen told how he had noticed a profound change in the nature of the Union five years ago. The Union had ceased to have a solid, undivided core. The Union of the post-enlargement era is more heterogeneous and coalitions change according to topic. This assessment had been a correct one, he concluded.[18]

According to Prime Minister Vanhanen, the treaty renewal process is a sign of how difficult it can be to reach an agreement in a Union of 27 member states. There are items in the Union’s agenda all the time, which keep challenging the unity of the EU. This will bring up the issue of differentiated integration, of which Vanhanen said that the unity of the 27 has always been a significant thing to him. He also stressed that it is in Finland’s own interest to be involved whenever the Union is making decisions.[19]

Last but not least, the NGOs which had campaigned against the Lisbon Treaty kept reminding their position that the treaty would lead to a more centralized, unequal and undemocratic Union. The EU would become a more distant organisation away from the citizens and the decision making would focus more and more in the control of the large member states.[20]

2. Transatlantic relations renewed after President Bush: top priorities

 

New energy, familiar themes

Public debaters were unanimous in saying that the relations between the EU and the US will improve. While there was a lot of excitement about the new era, expectations were often quite unspecific. Many pointed out that more effort is now needed from the EU side than before. Moreover, the wish lists are not similar on the opposite side of the Atlantic Ocean.[21] The Finnish Foreign Minister, Alexander Stubb, fears that more obstacles for productive cooperation will now be found in Europe rather than in the US.[22] Many Finns would very likely agree to several of the points on Minister Stubb’s wish list when he said that he would like the US and the EU to form a better team with regard to world trade, crisis management, human rights, climate change and rebuilding in Iraq. He also wished Europe and the US had other noticeable forms of cooperation than just the NATO operation in Afghanistan. All transatlantic collaboration should not be related to wars.[23]

Nevertheless, by far the most often mentioned issue was burden-sharing with regard to Afghanistan. A prominent EU affairs correspondent of the largest newspaper, “Helsingin Sanomat”, even predicted that the next big argument between the US and the EU may erupt over Afghanistan.[24] Obama is likely to put more resources into Afghanistan and will expect greater input from his European allies, including in the more dangerous areas of Southern Afghanistan, which may materialize the worry over the Europeans’ ability to meet Obama’s requests.[25]

Barack Obama’s initial climate policy decisions were welcomed by many. “Vihreä lanka”, the official paper of the Green Party, hailed Barack Obama’s energy policy as strict and progressive and was positively surprised by his level of investment to renewable energy technology.[26] Jutta Urpilainen, the leader of the main opposition party, Social Democrats, called upgrading the transatlantic relations as the EU’s mission for the year 2009. In her view, the Copenhagen Climate Conference should become a potentially important milestone in fulfilling this goal.[27] Perhaps this reflects the second broader theme: strengthened multilateralism which involves the joint leadership of the US and the EU. There was some acknowledgement of the need to involve more partners than just the EU and the US to tackle the financial crisis. In climate matters, it is somehow more possible to call for the EU-US tandem to lead the world.

Finally, more respect for human rights is certainly among the top three wishes the Europeans have for the new US Administration,[28] with resigning from torture and the closing down of Guantanamo as the most important practical implications. This led to a vivid discussion as to whether Finland should accept prisoners from Guantanamo.[29] This, we think, is a manifestation of the third priority: concrete measures to show that the two partners are again sharing the same values.

3. Financial crisis and challenges of global governance: the EU response

 

Mixed opinions about European Union’s ability to tackle the financial crisis

The financial crisis has not hit Finland as hard as some of the other European Union members. The Finnish Government has granted loans to some other member states and has also promised to finance Finnish banks.[30] Measures taken by the Union to tackle the crisis are in general seen as good although some consider them not sufficient enough.[31]

Remarkable or slow and cautious?

The EU was criticised in October for being disintegrated in responding to the financial crisis. First, the bank deposit guarantees were increased randomly in member states, and later the financial summit between larger member states instigated further disintegration between member states.[32] Finland’s Minister of Finance, Jyrki Katainen, disapproved of the larger member states making decisions between themselves.[33] Katainen also called for a joint decision on the bank deposit guarantees.[34] The Finnish Prime Minister, Matti Vanhanen, shared Katainen’s view and demanded more coordination between the member states after the debacle with the bank deposit guarantees.[35]

The Finnish Financial Minister, Jyrki Katainen,[36] and the Director of the board of the Finnish Central Bank, Erkki Liikanen,[37] both found the cooperation between the European and US central banks in lowering the interest rates as “remarkable”.

The resuscitation package that was resolved in December’s summit was seen mostly as positive. The Head of the forecasting group of “The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy”, Pasi Sorjonen, considered the resuscitation package successful[38] and Financial Minister Katainen thought the actions might boost the EU’s internal commerce and therefore improve Finnish export.[39] In some NGOs, however, the decisions made in the December’s summit have been accused of being watered down.[40]

The Commissioner for enlargement, Olli Rehn, claimed that the credibility of the EU is on the line after the summit in December. Rehn hoped that the member states will take the Commission’s suggestions seriously and act on them swiftly. According to Rehn, the common currency has really shown its worth during the crisis. It has brought a lot of stability to households in the Euro area, for example, the situation in Finland is a lot better now than during the recession in 1990s. The allure of Euro has not gone unnoticed in the countries outside the Euro area either,[41] and Finland is very interested to see if Iceland will apply to the EU[42] and how Sweden’s and Denmark’s relationship with the Euro will evolve.[43] The officials in Finland consider Finland lucky to be a part of the Eurozone,[44] but the Finnish anti-EU NGO, “Vaihtoehto EU:lle” (VEU, “Alternative for the EU”), claims the countries outside the Eurozone are actually better off. In their newsletter they say that Sweden actually benefits from not belonging to the Euro area.[45]

Esko Antola, the director of “Centrum Balticum”, thinks that the financial crisis has in no way integrated the Union further, contrary to what the leaders of the member states keep insisting. The director of the “Helsinki Center of Economic Research”, Otto Toivanen, believes that the uncertainty caused by the crisis has paved the way for those who wish to exercise national politics.[46] Jorma Ollila, the chairman of the board of “Nokia” and vice-chair of the EU reflection group, in a speech at the 90th Anniversary of the “Finnish Chamber of Commerce”, also criticised the European Central Bank (ECB) of acting too slowly and cautiously with lowering its interest rate. He also pointed out how the situation is even more difficult with regard to fiscal policy, as no heavier instruments than coordination between the member states exist.[47] Ollila also claimed that the Finnish Government’s resuscitation actions are not sufficient.[48]

Finns have faith in the EU

As a small and open economy, Finland is very dependent on the decisions of larger countries and the ECB. For Finland, the most relevant step the ECB should take is to defend free trade by keeping the nationalist and protectionist pressures at bay. Also, a substantial lightening of monetary policy in Europe is called for.[49] The CEO of the “Research Institute of the Finnish Economy”, Sixten Korkman, puts the blame on the European Central Bank for not reacting to the financial crisis quickly enough. Korkman praises the way the US has handled the crisis in resuscitating vigorously, and says the EU has not got the institutional prerequisites for joint actions.[50] Jyrki Katainen, Minister of Finance, takes a different view. He said that the EU’s actions have proved the Union’s ability to act – even if things have not worked out in a perfectly smooth way. If the EU is compared to the US as regards to consistency and effects of the decisions made, many of those who have criticized the Union need to now rethink their views.[51] According to him, the coordinated actions of the EU member states also support the Finnish exporting sectors.[52]

The Finnish public has a quite positive view of the EU’s ability to pull the Union out of the slump. In a survey, 72 percent of Finnish citizens were of the opinion that the Union is able to positively influence economic stability and growth – thus placing these issues as the most commonly mentioned area of positive influence. Actually, more respondents mentioned economic stability and growth as an issue which the Union is well positioned to influence than as an issue which they themselves were concerned about.[53]

Jyrki Katainen agreed with the European Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs, Joaquín Almunia, that the most important thing now is to improve the availability of funding. According to him, resuscitation on its own is not enough to turn the economic trend. So far, Finland has done a lot better than some of the other member states. Katainen, however, warns about false optimism, Finland is running fast into debt and Katainen stresses that this is a genuine risk. [54]

Rising star G20, otherwise a foggy vision

Though it was generally stressed that it was too early to predict what the long-term effects of the crisis will be,[55] some assessments were nevertheless made.

Jorma Ollila, chairman of the board at “Nokia” and vice-chair of the EU reflection group, has high hopes of the role the G20 is taking, as well as of the policies G20 recommended in its Washington meeting, such as ensuring that demand keeps production from decreasing and refraining from protectionism.[56] Erkki Liikanen, director of the board of the Finnish Central Bank, and Raimo Väyrynen, director of the “Finnish Institute of International Affairs” (FIIA), agreed about the importance of the G20 and that it will endure in the future. Väyrynen[57] emphasised that the G20 meeting may have been an indicator of future institutional and regime changes, which will take the importance of the emerging economies more into account.[58]

With regard to the US, opinions were more mixed. While many Finns held the opinion that the position of the US will weaken,[59] Jorma Ollila said that the US may in the end recover from the financial crisis faster than the EU. The US has two assets: a growing population and growing productivity, which give it room for manoeuvre.[60]

Generally, China was seen as one of those power poles which will be least harmed by the crisis. Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen pointed out that demand is increasing in rising economies in the east while dwindling elsewhere. These economies will be able to change the parameters of comparison completely over the next decades. He even felt that the global economic developments will lead states into a competition between economic models.[61] Researchers, Matti Nojonen (the Finnish Institute of International Affairs), and Mikael Mattlin (University of Helsinki), predict that the financial crisis will increase the pressure on China to take a more responsible/leading role with regard to the international financial system faster than without a financial crisis. However, China is likely to remain somewhat reluctant to accept that role.[62]

Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb described the combined effect of the financial and Georgian crises as one of the three major turning points during the post-Cold War era. There are developments strengthening realism and power politics and yet the situation calls for multilateralism. The world can become either more multipolar or more multilateral, depending on how we let it develop. Of these two, multilateralism would be a much more benevolent environment; hence the current existing international institutions, should be strengthened.[63]

With regard to the EU, commentators were clearly less eager to say anything. However, one possible future consequence became debated very lively, namely the possibility that Iceland apply for the Union membership.[64]

 

 

 

[1] ”Unioni ei ole kriisissä”, Eväitä eurooppalaiseen vaikuttamiseen, Maaseudun Sivistysliitto, 2008.
[2] Tiia Lehtonen, researcher: ”Talouskriisi voi jouduttaa EU:n perustuslain ratifiointia”, Helsingin Sanomat, 23 October 2008.
[3] The True Finns have gained popularity fast, with currently 8.3 percent of Finns supporting them. Source: ”Keskustan kannatus laskenut alle 20 prosentin”, YLE – Finnish Broadcasting Company, Web news, 19 January 2009, available at: http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/kotimaa/2009/01/keskustan_kannatus_laskenut_alle_20_prosentin_488100.html (last access: 30 January 2009).
[4] Timo Soini, chairman of the True Finns: ”Isoja asioita pienille ihmisille”, in: PerusSuomalainen 15/2008, p. 3.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Based on the survey, it is impossible to say to what extent the popularity should be attributed to the party’s EU opinions and to what extent to its nationalism and calls for stricter migration laws.
[7] See e.g. ”Blogi starttaa eurovaalien odotuksen”, Website of the official magazine of the Green party Vihreä lanka, 16 January 2009, available at: http://www.vihrealanka.fi/node/3240 (last access: 26 January 2009).
[8] ”Vaalikuume vähäistä”, Lapin kansa, 13 January 2009.
[9] E.g. Anneli Jäätteenmäki, MEP: ”EU tuli komissaariasiassa järkiinsä”, Communication, 12 December 2008.
[10] ”Rehnin ehdokkuus EU:n ulkoministeriksi ei saa varauksetonta tukea”, YLE – Finnish Broadcasting Company, Web news, 17 December 2008, available at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/jaatteenmaki_esittaa_kahta_komissaariehdokasta_435772.html (last access: 29 January 2009).
[11] Astrid Thors, Minister of Migration and European Affairs: Speech at the Finnish Institute of International Affair’s (FIIA) seminar ”Aftermath of the Summit”, 15 December 2008.
[12] ”Tulossa nimityskamppailun ja heikkenevän talouden EU-vuosi”, Aamulehti, 19 December 2008.
[13] ”Rehnillä nostetta EU:n ulkoministeriksi”, YLE – Finnish Broadcasting Company, Web news, 16 December 2008, available at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/rehnilla_nostetta_eun_ulkoministeriksi_433443.html (last access: 29 January 2009).
[14] ”Rehnin ehdokkuus EU:n ulkoministeriksi ei saa varauksetonta tukea”, YLE – Finnish Broadcasting Company, Web news, 17 December 2008, available at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/jaatteenmaki_esittaa_kahta_komissaariehdokasta_435772.html (last access: 29 January 2009).
[15] ”Rehnin nimi esillä EU:n ulkoministeriksi”, Helsingin Sanomat, 18 December 2008.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Jutta Urpilainen, leader of the Social Democrats: Speech at a meeting of the Social Democrat MP’s, 2/3 September 2008, available at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/?a=viewItem&itemid=1116 (last access: 25 January 2009).
[18] Matti Vanhanen, Prime Minister: Speech at the Annual Meeting of Heads of Missions, 28 August 2008, Helsinki, available at: http://www.vnk.fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/puhe/en.jsp?oid=236735 (last access: 27 January 2009).
[19] Ibid.
[20] ”Vaihtoehto EU:lle kansalaisliike vetoaa kansanedustajiin – Hylätkää EU:n perustuslaki”, Vaihtoehto EU:lle 2/2008.
[21] ”Niin paljon odotuksia, niin vähän takeita”, Helsingin Sanomat, 14 January 2009.
[22] ”USA:n kädenojennukseen vastattava”, Suomen Kuvalehti, 19 June 2008.
[23] Ibid.
[24] ”Tervemenoa Bush ja tervetuloa Obama: EU on innoissaan uudesta alusta”, Helsingin Sanomat, 6 November 2008.
[25] ”Raimo Väyrynen: Uuden hallinnon taloudellinen liikkumavara pieni”, Turun Sanomat, 6 November 2008.
[26] ”Obama satsaa uusiutuvaan energiaan odotettua enemmän”, Vihreä lanka (web edition), 19 January 2009, available at: http://www.vihrealanka.fi/uutiset/obama-satsaa-uusiutuvaan-energiaan-odotettua-enemman (last access: 25 January 2009).
[27] Jutta Urpilainen, leader of the Social Democrats: Speech at a meeting of the Social Democrat MP’s, 2/3 September 2008, available at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/?a=viewItem&itemid=1116 (last access: 25 January 2009).
[28] Annamari Sipilä, journalist: ”Niin paljon odotuksia, niin vähän takeita”, Helsingin Sanomat, 14 January 2009.
[29] See e.g. Pekka Haavisto: ”Suomen pitäisi vastaanottaa Guantánamon vankeja”, Helsingin Sanomat, 25 January 2009.
[30] ”Suomen pankkitukipaketille ei vielä hintaa”, Helsingin Sanomat, 14 October 2008.
[31] ”Jaakonsaari: Elvytyksessä vahva liioittelun maku”, The Finnish Social Democratic Party webpage, available at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/?a=viewItem&itemid=1194 (last access: 29 January 2009).
[32] ”Finanssikriisi säikyttelee EU-maiden katraan hajalleen”, Helsingin Sanomat, 7 October 2008.
[33] ”Suuret EU-maat ratkoivat finanssikriisiä keskenään – pienet jäsenmaat suuttuivat”, Helsingin Sanomat, 5 October 2008.
[34] ”Euroryhmä: Talletussuoja yhtenäistyy Euroopan Unionissa”, Helsingin Sanomat, 7 October 2008.
[35] ”Britannia tarjoaa omaa malliaan Euroopalle kriisin ratkaisuksi”, Helsingin Sanomat, 10 October 2008.
[36] ”Keskuspankit pistivät kaiken peliin estääkseen täyden talouskatastrofin”, Helsingin Sanomat, 9 October 2008.
[37] Erkki Liikanen, Governor of the Bank of Finland: Presentation at FIIA seminar, 11 December 2008, Helsinki.
[38] ”Etlan Sorjonen: Aika nerokasta”, Helsingin Sanomat, 27 November 2008.
[39] ”Saksa ja Suomi kitsastelevat”, Suomen Kuvalehti, 5 December 2008.
[40] ”Talven keskellä kylmenevää”, Suomen Kuvalehti, 22 December 2008.
[41] ”EU:n uskottavuus koetuksella”, Suomen Kuvalehti, 12 December 2008.
[42] ”Islannilta voi tulla EU-hakemus jo keväällä”, Helsingin Sanomat, 26 November 2008.
[43] ”Euro houkuttelee”, Suomen Kuvalehti, 7 November 2008.
[44] ”Kriisi muovaa Euroopan unionia”, Helsingin Sanomat, 21 October 2008.
[45] ”Mediakin jo myöntää: Ruotsi hyötyy kruunustaan”, Vaihtoehto EU:lle 3-4/2008.
[46] ”Kansallinen itsekkyys nousee EU:ssa finanssikriisin myötä”, Helsingin Sanomat, 25 October 2008.
[47] Jorma Ollila, chairman of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talouspolitiikkaa syvän taantuman kynnyksellä?”, speech at the 90th Anniversary of the Finnish Chamber of Commerce, 19 November 2008, Helsinki.
[48] ”Ollila: Suomi tarvitsee voimakkaampaa elvytystä”, Helsingin Sanomat, 20 November 2008.
[49] ”Finanssikriisi: Miten maailma on muuttunut?”, newsletter, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA), 29 October 2008.
[50] ”Etla: Eurooppa juuttuu pitkään ja sitkeään taantumaan”, Helsingin Sanomat, 25 November 2008.
[51] Jyrki Katainen, Minister of Finance: ”Talouden ja talouspolitiikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Economic Association, 25 November 2008, Helsinki.
[52] Jyrki Katainen, Minister of Finance: ”Talouden ja talouspolitiikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Economic Association, 25 November 2008, Helsinki.
[53] Survey conducted between 1-11 January 2009 by TNS Gallup Oy on behalf of the European Parliament’s Information Office in Helsinki and MTV3, available at: http://www.europarl.fi/ressource/static/files/dokumenttipankki/EU-2009-RAPORTTI_1.pdf (last access: 10 March 2009).
[54] ”Rajusta velkaantumisesta tuli EU-maiden uusin pelko”, Helsingin Sanomat, 21 January 2009.
[55] See e.g. Jyrki Katainen, Minister of Finance: ”Talouden ja talouspolitiikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Economic Association, 25 November 2008, available at: http://www.vm.fi/vm/fi/03_tiedotteet_ja_puheet/02_puheet/20081126Taloud/name.jsp (last access: 30 January 2009).
[56] Jorma Ollila, chairman of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talouspolitiikkaa syvän taantuman kynnyksellä?”, speech at the 90th Anniversary of the Finnish Chamber of Commerce, 19 November 2008, available at: http://www.kokoomus.fi/jyrkin_sivut/paivakirja/?x206056=209800 (last access: 30 January 2009).
[57] Erkki Liikanen, governor of the Bank of Finland: presentation at FIIA seminar “Obaman valinnat”, 11 December 2008.
[58] Raimo Väyrynen, reseracher: Speech at FIIA seminar “Obaman valinnat”, 11 December 2008.
[59] See e.g. Matti Nojonen/Mikael Mattlin, reserachers: ”Kiinalle kasautuu yhä suurempi vastuu maailman vakaudesta”, Helsingin Sanomat, 13 November 2008.
[60] Jorma Ollila, chairman of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talouspolitiikkaa syvän taantuman kynnyksellä?”, speech at the 90th Anniversary of the Finnish Chamber of Commerce, 19 November 2008, available at: http://www.kokoomus.fi/jyrkin_sivut/paivakirja/?x206056=209800 (last access: 30 January 2009).
[61] Matti Vanhanen, Prime Minister: Speech at a Nordic summit, Helsinki, 28 October 2008, available at: http://www.vnk.fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/puhe/fi.jsp?oid=242699 (last access: 30 January 2009).
[62] See e.g. Matti Nojonen/Mikael Mattlin, reserachers: ”Kiinalle kasautuu yhä suurempi vastuu maailman vakaudesta”, Helsingin Sanomat, 13 November 2008.
[63] Alexander Stubb, Minister for Foreign Affairs: Speech at the FIIA seminar ”Europe’s Declining Power? Assessing the EU’s perfomance at the United Nations”, 16 December 2008; Alexander Stubb, Minister for Foreign Affairs: Opening speech at the Annual Meeting of Heads of Missions, 25 August 2008, available at: http://www.formin.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=135322&nodeid=15149&contentlan=2&culture=en-US (last access: 27 January 2009).
[64] ”Islannilta voi tulla EU-hakemus jo keväällä”, Helsingin Sanomat, 26 November 2008.