Quiet… And not very interested?

1. How does the future of the EU after the Irish ‘No’ look like?

 

Conclusions of the European Council of December 2008 on the fate of the Lisbon Treaty

In gen­er­al, the main atten­tion after the Euro­pean Coun­cil was on the deci­sions about econ­o­my and cli­mate, with the con­clu­sions on the Lis­bon Treaty get­ting only scant atten­tion. Offi­cial­ly, opti­mism towards the treaty enter­ing into force was main­tained: Olli Rehn, the EU Com­mis­sion­er for enlarge­ment, said that he is con­fi­dent that the Lis­bon Treaty will take effect.[1]

As to what kind of end result the deci­sion to hold anoth­er ref­er­en­dum in Ire­land will have, many point­ed out that the finan­cial cri­sis has shown Ire­land how much it has to gain from its mem­ber­ship; with­out being a mem­ber of the mon­e­tary union, it would have suf­fered the same fate as Ice­land. It is hoped that the finan­cial cri­sis gives the key to unlock the sit­u­a­tion and get the Lis­bon Treaty ratified.[2]

The True Finns (Perussuomalaiset[3]), a par­ty crit­i­cal towards the EU, com­ment­ed on the deci­sion to hold anoth­er ref­er­en­dum in Ire­land by say­ing that “when a small nation is being humil­i­at­ed like that, it is humil­i­at­ing even for the onlookers”[4]. Timo Soi­ni, chair­man of the par­ty, used this argu­ment to moti­vate the par­ty to take an active role in the cam­paign for its anti-EU can­di­dates to be elect­ed to the Euro­pean Parliament.[5]

European Parliament elections

Based on sur­veys on the sup­port for nation­al par­ties, it seemed in Jan­u­ary that the true Finns would indeed get at least one seat in the Euro­pean Par­lia­ment. Thus, Soini’s opin­ions (see above) may have some res­o­nance in the elec­torate also with regard to the spe­cif­ic ques­tion of how Ire­land was treated.[6] This received a lot of media atten­tion and alarmed oth­er parties.[7] Apart from this, the pub­lic dis­cus­sion about the elec­tions was still sched­uled to start. Many jour­nal­ists brought up the fact that accord­ing to the lat­est Euro­barom­e­ter, Finns were the Euro­peans least like­ly to know when the next Euro­pean Par­lia­ments elec­tions are to take place. Accord­ing to them, this reflect­ed the Finnish dis­in­ter­est in the elections.[8]

Formation of the new Commission

All in all, the new Com­mis­sion did not emerge as a dis­cus­sion top­ic. There were a few expres­sions of sat­is­fac­tion due to the deci­sion to not rotate the seats in Com­mis­sion as a con­ces­sion to the Irish.[9] Prime Min­is­ter Mat­ti Van­hanen out­lined that it is too ear­ly to start spec­u­lat­ing about the can­di­dates before it is known which treaty will be implemented.[10] As to how the Com­mis­sion would be formed, Min­is­ter of Migra­tion and Euro­pean Affairs, Astrid Thors, pre­dict­ed that the pres­i­dent of the new Com­mis­sion would be cho­sen after the Euro­pean Par­lia­ment elec­tions, and the rest of the Com­mis­sion once it is known which treaty rules will be followed.[11]

Appointment of the High Representative

Mem­ber of the Euro­pean Par­lia­ment, Ville Itälä, sug­gest­ed that if the Lis­bon Treaty is imple­ment­ed, Fin­land should cam­paign for Olli Rehn, the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion­er for Enlarge­ment, to be appoint­ed to the posi­tion of the High Representative.[12] Thus, pub­lic dis­cus­sion about the appoint­ment of the High Rep­re­sen­ta­tive con­cen­trat­ed on gath­er­ing wide­spread nation­al sup­port for Olli Rehn.[13] It was also sug­gest­ed that Fin­land should cam­paign for both one male and one female can­di­date to show that it pro­motes gen­der equality.[14] Very lit­tle was said about how the Lis­bon Treaty would change the role of the High Rep­re­sen­ta­tive, instead, the issue was approached from the point of view of who would be appoint­ed. A cen­tral con­cern was whether it would turn out impos­si­ble for a can­di­date from a small mem­ber state to be select­ed. Tony Blair was among the most often men­tioned non-Finnish names to the new top posts.[15]

In the con­text of the more gen­er­al dis­cus­sion about the appoint­ments, it was at times remarked that the treaty does not make clear dis­tinc­tions between the com­pe­tences of the Coun­cil Pres­i­dent, Com­mis­sion Pres­i­dent and High Rep­re­sen­ta­tive, which may com­pli­cate matters.[16]

Concerns about the long term

There was lit­tle dis­cus­sion about the long-term impli­ca­tions. When dis­cussed, a fair­ly typ­i­cal approach was that of the main oppo­si­tion par­ty, the Social Democ­rats. While they strong­ly sup­port­ed the rat­i­fi­ca­tion of the Lis­bon Treaty, their leader point­ed out that the Irish ref­er­en­dum is a warn­ing which the Union should take seri­ous­ly. The Union needs to take mea­sures to increase trust amongst the citizens.[17]

Speak­ing to the Finnish Heads of Mis­sions, Prime Min­is­ter Mat­ti Van­hanen told how he had noticed a pro­found change in the nature of the Union five years ago. The Union had ceased to have a sol­id, undi­vid­ed core. The Union of the post-enlarge­ment era is more het­ero­ge­neous and coali­tions change accord­ing to top­ic. This assess­ment had been a cor­rect one, he concluded.[18]

Accord­ing to Prime Min­is­ter Van­hanen, the treaty renew­al process is a sign of how dif­fi­cult it can be to reach an agree­ment in a Union of 27 mem­ber states. There are items in the Union’s agen­da all the time, which keep chal­leng­ing the uni­ty of the EU. This will bring up the issue of dif­fer­en­ti­at­ed inte­gra­tion, of which Van­hanen said that the uni­ty of the 27 has always been a sig­nif­i­cant thing to him. He also stressed that it is in Finland’s own inter­est to be involved when­ev­er the Union is mak­ing decisions.[19]

Last but not least, the NGOs which had cam­paigned against the Lis­bon Treaty kept remind­ing their posi­tion that the treaty would lead to a more cen­tral­ized, unequal and unde­mo­c­ra­t­ic Union. The EU would become a more dis­tant organ­i­sa­tion away from the cit­i­zens and the deci­sion mak­ing would focus more and more in the con­trol of the large mem­ber states.[20]

2. Transatlantic relations renewed after President Bush: top priorities

 

New energy, familiar themes

Pub­lic debaters were unan­i­mous in say­ing that the rela­tions between the EU and the US will improve. While there was a lot of excite­ment about the new era, expec­ta­tions were often quite unspe­cif­ic. Many point­ed out that more effort is now need­ed from the EU side than before. More­over, the wish lists are not sim­i­lar on the oppo­site side of the Atlantic Ocean.[21] The Finnish For­eign Min­is­ter, Alexan­der Stubb, fears that more obsta­cles for pro­duc­tive coop­er­a­tion will now be found in Europe rather than in the US.[22] Many Finns would very like­ly agree to sev­er­al of the points on Min­is­ter Stubb’s wish list when he said that he would like the US and the EU to form a bet­ter team with regard to world trade, cri­sis man­age­ment, human rights, cli­mate change and rebuild­ing in Iraq. He also wished Europe and the US had oth­er notice­able forms of coop­er­a­tion than just the NATO oper­a­tion in Afghanistan. All transat­lantic col­lab­o­ra­tion should not be relat­ed to wars.[23]

Nev­er­the­less, by far the most often men­tioned issue was bur­den-shar­ing with regard to Afghanistan. A promi­nent EU affairs cor­re­spon­dent of the largest news­pa­per, “Helsin­gin Sanomat”, even pre­dict­ed that the next big argu­ment between the US and the EU may erupt over Afghanistan.[24] Oba­ma is like­ly to put more resources into Afghanistan and will expect greater input from his Euro­pean allies, includ­ing in the more dan­ger­ous areas of South­ern Afghanistan, which may mate­ri­al­ize the wor­ry over the Euro­peans’ abil­i­ty to meet Obama’s requests.[25]

Barack Obama’s ini­tial cli­mate pol­i­cy deci­sions were wel­comed by many. “Vihreä lan­ka”, the offi­cial paper of the Green Par­ty, hailed Barack Obama’s ener­gy pol­i­cy as strict and pro­gres­sive and was pos­i­tive­ly sur­prised by his lev­el of invest­ment to renew­able ener­gy technology.[26] Jut­ta Urpi­lainen, the leader of the main oppo­si­tion par­ty, Social Democ­rats, called upgrad­ing the transat­lantic rela­tions as the EU’s mis­sion for the year 2009. In her view, the Copen­hagen Cli­mate Con­fer­ence should become a poten­tial­ly impor­tant mile­stone in ful­fill­ing this goal.[27] Per­haps this reflects the sec­ond broad­er theme: strength­ened mul­ti­lat­er­al­ism which involves the joint lead­er­ship of the US and the EU. There was some acknowl­edge­ment of the need to involve more part­ners than just the EU and the US to tack­le the finan­cial cri­sis. In cli­mate mat­ters, it is some­how more pos­si­ble to call for the EU-US tan­dem to lead the world.

Final­ly, more respect for human rights is cer­tain­ly among the top three wish­es the Euro­peans have for the new US Administration,[28] with resign­ing from tor­ture and the clos­ing down of Guan­tanamo as the most impor­tant prac­ti­cal impli­ca­tions. This led to a vivid dis­cus­sion as to whether Fin­land should accept pris­on­ers from Guantanamo.[29] This, we think, is a man­i­fes­ta­tion of the third pri­or­i­ty: con­crete mea­sures to show that the two part­ners are again shar­ing the same values.

3. Financial crisis and challenges of global governance: the EU response

 

Mixed opinions about European Union’s ability to tackle the financial crisis

The finan­cial cri­sis has not hit Fin­land as hard as some of the oth­er Euro­pean Union mem­bers. The Finnish Gov­ern­ment has grant­ed loans to some oth­er mem­ber states and has also promised to finance Finnish banks.[30] Mea­sures tak­en by the Union to tack­le the cri­sis are in gen­er­al seen as good although some con­sid­er them not suf­fi­cient enough.[31]

Remarkable or slow and cautious?

The EU was crit­i­cised in Octo­ber for being dis­in­te­grat­ed in respond­ing to the finan­cial cri­sis. First, the bank deposit guar­an­tees were increased ran­dom­ly in mem­ber states, and lat­er the finan­cial sum­mit between larg­er mem­ber states insti­gat­ed fur­ther dis­in­te­gra­tion between mem­ber states.[32] Finland’s Min­is­ter of Finance, Jyr­ki Katainen, dis­ap­proved of the larg­er mem­ber states mak­ing deci­sions between themselves.[33] Katainen also called for a joint deci­sion on the bank deposit guarantees.[34] The Finnish Prime Min­is­ter, Mat­ti Van­hanen, shared Katainen’s view and demand­ed more coor­di­na­tion between the mem­ber states after the deba­cle with the bank deposit guarantees.[35]

The Finnish Finan­cial Min­is­ter, Jyr­ki Katainen,[36] and the Direc­tor of the board of the Finnish Cen­tral Bank, Erk­ki Liikanen,[37] both found the coop­er­a­tion between the Euro­pean and US cen­tral banks in low­er­ing the inter­est rates as “remark­able”.

The resus­ci­ta­tion pack­age that was resolved in December’s sum­mit was seen most­ly as pos­i­tive. The Head of the fore­cast­ing group of “The Research Insti­tute of the Finnish Econ­o­my”, Pasi Sor­jo­nen, con­sid­ered the resus­ci­ta­tion pack­age successful[38] and Finan­cial Min­is­ter Katainen thought the actions might boost the EU’s inter­nal com­merce and there­fore improve Finnish export.[39] In some NGOs, how­ev­er, the deci­sions made in the December’s sum­mit have been accused of being watered down.[40]

The Com­mis­sion­er for enlarge­ment, Olli Rehn, claimed that the cred­i­bil­i­ty of the EU is on the line after the sum­mit in Decem­ber. Rehn hoped that the mem­ber states will take the Commission’s sug­ges­tions seri­ous­ly and act on them swift­ly. Accord­ing to Rehn, the com­mon cur­ren­cy has real­ly shown its worth dur­ing the cri­sis. It has brought a lot of sta­bil­i­ty to house­holds in the Euro area, for exam­ple, the sit­u­a­tion in Fin­land is a lot bet­ter now than dur­ing the reces­sion in 1990s. The allure of Euro has not gone unno­ticed in the coun­tries out­side the Euro area either,[41] and Fin­land is very inter­est­ed to see if Ice­land will apply to the EU[42] and how Sweden’s and Denmark’s rela­tion­ship with the Euro will evolve.[43] The offi­cials in Fin­land con­sid­er Fin­land lucky to be a part of the Eurozone,[44] but the Finnish anti-EU NGO, “Vai­h­toe­hto EU:lle” (VEU, “Alter­na­tive for the EU”), claims the coun­tries out­side the Euro­zone are actu­al­ly bet­ter off. In their newslet­ter they say that Swe­den actu­al­ly ben­e­fits from not belong­ing to the Euro area.[45]

Esko Anto­la, the direc­tor of “Cen­trum Balticum”, thinks that the finan­cial cri­sis has in no way inte­grat­ed the Union fur­ther, con­trary to what the lead­ers of the mem­ber states keep insist­ing. The direc­tor of the “Helsin­ki Cen­ter of Eco­nom­ic Research”, Otto Toiva­nen, believes that the uncer­tain­ty caused by the cri­sis has paved the way for those who wish to exer­cise nation­al politics.[46] Jor­ma Ollila, the chair­man of the board of “Nokia” and vice-chair of the EU reflec­tion group, in a speech at the 90th Anniver­sary of the “Finnish Cham­ber of Com­merce”, also crit­i­cised the Euro­pean Cen­tral Bank (ECB) of act­ing too slow­ly and cau­tious­ly with low­er­ing its inter­est rate. He also point­ed out how the sit­u­a­tion is even more dif­fi­cult with regard to fis­cal pol­i­cy, as no heav­ier instru­ments than coor­di­na­tion between the mem­ber states exist.[47] Ollila also claimed that the Finnish Government’s resus­ci­ta­tion actions are not sufficient.[48]

Finns have faith in the EU

As a small and open econ­o­my, Fin­land is very depen­dent on the deci­sions of larg­er coun­tries and the ECB. For Fin­land, the most rel­e­vant step the ECB should take is to defend free trade by keep­ing the nation­al­ist and pro­tec­tion­ist pres­sures at bay. Also, a sub­stan­tial light­en­ing of mon­e­tary pol­i­cy in Europe is called for.[49] The CEO of the “Research Insti­tute of the Finnish Econ­o­my”, Six­ten Kork­man, puts the blame on the Euro­pean Cen­tral Bank for not react­ing to the finan­cial cri­sis quick­ly enough. Kork­man prais­es the way the US has han­dled the cri­sis in resus­ci­tat­ing vig­or­ous­ly, and says the EU has not got the insti­tu­tion­al pre­req­ui­sites for joint actions.[50] Jyr­ki Katainen, Min­is­ter of Finance, takes a dif­fer­ent view. He said that the EU’s actions have proved the Union’s abil­i­ty to act – even if things have not worked out in a per­fect­ly smooth way. If the EU is com­pared to the US as regards to con­sis­ten­cy and effects of the deci­sions made, many of those who have crit­i­cized the Union need to now rethink their views.[51] Accord­ing to him, the coor­di­nat­ed actions of the EU mem­ber states also sup­port the Finnish export­ing sectors.[52]

The Finnish pub­lic has a quite pos­i­tive view of the EU’s abil­i­ty to pull the Union out of the slump. In a sur­vey, 72 per­cent of Finnish cit­i­zens were of the opin­ion that the Union is able to pos­i­tive­ly influ­ence eco­nom­ic sta­bil­i­ty and growth – thus plac­ing these issues as the most com­mon­ly men­tioned area of pos­i­tive influ­ence. Actu­al­ly, more respon­dents men­tioned eco­nom­ic sta­bil­i­ty and growth as an issue which the Union is well posi­tioned to influ­ence than as an issue which they them­selves were con­cerned about.[53]

Jyr­ki Katainen agreed with the Euro­pean Com­mis­sion­er for Eco­nom­ic and Mon­e­tary Affairs, Joaquín Almu­nia, that the most impor­tant thing now is to improve the avail­abil­i­ty of fund­ing. Accord­ing to him, resus­ci­ta­tion on its own is not enough to turn the eco­nom­ic trend. So far, Fin­land has done a lot bet­ter than some of the oth­er mem­ber states. Katainen, how­ev­er, warns about false opti­mism, Fin­land is run­ning fast into debt and Katainen stress­es that this is a gen­uine risk. [54]

Rising star G20, otherwise a foggy vision

Though it was gen­er­al­ly stressed that it was too ear­ly to pre­dict what the long-term effects of the cri­sis will be,[55] some assess­ments were nev­er­the­less made.

Jor­ma Ollila, chair­man of the board at “Nokia” and vice-chair of the EU reflec­tion group, has high hopes of the role the G20 is tak­ing, as well as of the poli­cies G20 rec­om­mend­ed in its Wash­ing­ton meet­ing, such as ensur­ing that demand keeps pro­duc­tion from decreas­ing and refrain­ing from protectionism.[56] Erk­ki Liika­nen, direc­tor of the board of the Finnish Cen­tral Bank, and Raimo Väyry­nen, direc­tor of the “Finnish Insti­tute of Inter­na­tion­al Affairs” (FIIA), agreed about the impor­tance of the G20 and that it will endure in the future. Väyrynen[57] empha­sised that the G20 meet­ing may have been an indi­ca­tor of future insti­tu­tion­al and regime changes, which will take the impor­tance of the emerg­ing economies more into account.[58]

With regard to the US, opin­ions were more mixed. While many Finns held the opin­ion that the posi­tion of the US will weaken,[59] Jor­ma Ollila said that the US may in the end recov­er from the finan­cial cri­sis faster than the EU. The US has two assets: a grow­ing pop­u­la­tion and grow­ing pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, which give it room for manoeuvre.[60]

Gen­er­al­ly, Chi­na was seen as one of those pow­er poles which will be least harmed by the cri­sis. Prime Min­is­ter Mat­ti Van­hanen point­ed out that demand is increas­ing in ris­ing economies in the east while dwin­dling else­where. These economies will be able to change the para­me­ters of com­par­i­son com­plete­ly over the next decades. He even felt that the glob­al eco­nom­ic devel­op­ments will lead states into a com­pe­ti­tion between eco­nom­ic models.[61] Researchers, Mat­ti Nojo­nen (the Finnish Insti­tute of Inter­na­tion­al Affairs), and Mikael Mat­tlin (Uni­ver­si­ty of Helsin­ki), pre­dict that the finan­cial cri­sis will increase the pres­sure on Chi­na to take a more responsible/leading role with regard to the inter­na­tion­al finan­cial sys­tem faster than with­out a finan­cial cri­sis. How­ev­er, Chi­na is like­ly to remain some­what reluc­tant to accept that role.[62]

For­eign Min­is­ter Alexan­der Stubb described the com­bined effect of the finan­cial and Geor­gian crises as one of the three major turn­ing points dur­ing the post-Cold War era. There are devel­op­ments strength­en­ing real­ism and pow­er pol­i­tics and yet the sit­u­a­tion calls for mul­ti­lat­er­al­ism. The world can become either more mul­ti­po­lar or more mul­ti­lat­er­al, depend­ing on how we let it devel­op. Of these two, mul­ti­lat­er­al­ism would be a much more benev­o­lent envi­ron­ment; hence the cur­rent exist­ing inter­na­tion­al insti­tu­tions, should be strengthened.[63]

With regard to the EU, com­men­ta­tors were clear­ly less eager to say any­thing. How­ev­er, one pos­si­ble future con­se­quence became debat­ed very live­ly, name­ly the pos­si­bil­i­ty that Ice­land apply for the Union membership.[64]

 

 

 

[1] ”Unioni ei ole kri­i­sis­sä”, Eväitä euroop­palaiseen vaikut­tamiseen, Maaseudun Sivistys­li­it­to, 2008.
[2] Tiia Lehto­nen, researcher: ”Talouskri­isi voi joudut­taa EU:n perus­tus­lain rat­i­fioin­tia”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 23 Octo­ber 2008.
[3] The True Finns have gained pop­u­lar­i­ty fast, with cur­rent­ly 8.3 per­cent of Finns sup­port­ing them. Source: ”Keskus­tan kan­na­tus laskenut alle 20 pros­entin”, YLE — Finnish Broad­cast­ing Com­pa­ny, Web news, 19 Jan­u­ary 2009, avail­able at: http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/kotimaa/2009/01/keskustan_kannatus_laskenut_alle_20_prosentin_488100.html (last access: 30 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[4] Timo Soi­ni, chair­man of the True Finns: ”Iso­ja asioi­ta pie­nille ihmisille”, in: Perus­Suo­ma­lainen 15/2008, p. 3.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Based on the sur­vey, it is impos­si­ble to say to what extent the pop­u­lar­i­ty should be attrib­uted to the party’s EU opin­ions and to what extent to its nation­al­ism and calls for stricter migra­tion laws.
[7] See e.g. ”Blo­gi start­taa eurovaalien odotuk­sen”, Web­site of the offi­cial mag­a­zine of the Green par­ty Vihreä lan­ka, 16 Jan­u­ary 2009, avail­able at: http://www.vihrealanka.fi/node/3240 (last access: 26 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[8] ”Vaa­liku­ume vähäistä”, Lapin kansa, 13 Jan­u­ary 2009.
[9] E.g. Anneli Jäät­teen­mä­ki, MEP: ”EU tuli komis­saari­asi­as­sa järki­in­sä”, Com­mu­ni­ca­tion, 12 Decem­ber 2008.
[10] ”Rehnin ehdokku­us EU:n ulko­min­is­terik­si ei saa varauk­se­ton­ta tukea”, YLE — Finnish Broad­cast­ing Com­pa­ny, Web news, 17 Decem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/jaatteenmaki_esittaa_kahta_komissaariehdokasta_435772.html (last access: 29 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[11] Astrid Thors, Min­is­ter of Migra­tion and Euro­pean Affairs: Speech at the Finnish Insti­tute of Inter­na­tion­al Affair’s (FIIA) sem­i­nar ”After­math of the Sum­mit”, 15 Decem­ber 2008.
[12] ”Tulos­sa nim­i­tyskamp­pailun ja heikkenevän talouden EU-vuosi”, Aamule­hti, 19 Decem­ber 2008.
[13] ”Rehnil­lä nos­tet­ta EU:n ulko­min­is­terik­si”, YLE — Finnish Broad­cast­ing Com­pa­ny, Web news, 16 Decem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/rehnilla_nostetta_eun_ulkoministeriksi_433443.html (last access: 29 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[14] ”Rehnin ehdokku­us EU:n ulko­min­is­terik­si ei saa varauk­se­ton­ta tukea”, YLE — Finnish Broad­cast­ing Com­pa­ny, Web news, 17 Decem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://yle.fi/uutiset/talous_ja_politiikka/2008/12/jaatteenmaki_esittaa_kahta_komissaariehdokasta_435772.html (last access: 29 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[15] ”Rehnin nimi esil­lä EU:n ulko­min­is­terik­si”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 18 Decem­ber 2008.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Jut­ta Urpi­lainen, leader of the Social Democ­rats: Speech at a meet­ing of the Social Demo­c­rat MP’s, 2/3 Sep­tem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/?a=viewItem&itemid=1116 (last access: 25 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[18] Mat­ti Van­hanen, Prime Min­is­ter: Speech at the Annu­al Meet­ing of Heads of Mis­sions, 28 August 2008, Helsin­ki, avail­able at: http://www.vnk.fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/puhe/en.jsp?oid=236735 (last access: 27 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[19] Ibid.
[20] ”Vai­h­toe­hto EU:lle kansalais­li­ike vetoaa kansane­dus­ta­ji­in — Hylätkää EU:n perus­tus­la­ki”, Vai­h­toe­hto EU:lle 2/2008.
[21] ”Niin paljon odotuk­sia, niin vähän takei­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 14 Jan­u­ary 2009.
[22] ”USA:n käde­no­jen­nuk­seen vas­tat­ta­va”, Suomen Kuvale­hti, 19 June 2008.
[23] Ibid.
[24] ”Ter­ve­menoa Bush ja ter­ve­tu­loa Oba­ma: EU on innois­saan uud­es­ta alus­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 6 Novem­ber 2008.
[25] ”Raimo Väyry­nen: Uuden hallinnon taloudelli­nen liikku­mavara pieni”, Turun Sanomat, 6 Novem­ber 2008.
[26] ”Oba­ma sat­saa uusi­u­tu­vaan ener­giaan odotet­tua enem­män”, Vihreä lan­ka (web edi­tion), 19 Jan­u­ary 2009, avail­able at: http://www.vihrealanka.fi/uutiset/obama-satsaa-uusiutuvaan-energiaan-odotettua-enemman (last access: 25 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[27] Jut­ta Urpi­lainen, leader of the Social Democ­rats: Speech at a meet­ing of the Social Demo­c­rat MP’s, 2/3 Sep­tem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/?a=viewItem&itemid=1116 (last access: 25 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[28] Anna­mari Sip­ilä, jour­nal­ist: ”Niin paljon odotuk­sia, niin vähän takei­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 14 Jan­u­ary 2009.
[29] See e.g. Pekka Haav­is­to: ”Suomen pitäisi vas­taan­ot­taa Guan­tá­na­mon vanke­ja”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 25 Jan­u­ary 2009.
[30] ”Suomen pankki­tukipaketille ei vielä hin­taa”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 14 Octo­ber 2008.
[31] ”Jaakon­saari: Elvy­tyk­sessä vah­va liioit­telun maku”, The Finnish Social Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty web­page, avail­able at: http://www.sdp.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/?a=viewItem&itemid=1194 (last access: 29 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[32] ”Finanssikri­isi säikyt­telee EU-maid­en katraan hajalleen”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 7 Octo­ber 2008.
[33] ”Suuret EU-maat ratkoi­vat finanssikri­isiä keskenään – pienet jäsen­maat suut­tui­v­at”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 5 Octo­ber 2008.
[34] ”Euro­ryh­mä: Tal­letus­suo­ja yht­enäistyy Euroopan Unionis­sa”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 7 Octo­ber 2008.
[35] ”Bri­tan­nia tar­joaa omaa malli­aan Euroopalle kri­isin ratkaisuk­si”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 10 Octo­ber 2008.
[36] ”Keskus­pankit pis­tivät kaiken peli­in estääk­seen täy­den talouskatas­trofin”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 9 Octo­ber 2008.
[37] Erk­ki Liika­nen, Gov­er­nor of the Bank of Fin­land: Pre­sen­ta­tion at FIIA sem­i­nar, 11 Decem­ber 2008, Helsinki.
[38] ”Etlan Sor­jo­nen: Aika nerokas­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 27 Novem­ber 2008.
[39] ”Sak­sa ja Suo­mi kit­sastel­e­vat”, Suomen Kuvale­hti, 5 Decem­ber 2008.
[40] ”Tal­ven keskel­lä kylmenevää”, Suomen Kuvale­hti, 22 Decem­ber 2008.
[41] ”EU:n uskot­tavu­us koe­tuk­sel­la”, Suomen Kuvale­hti, 12 Decem­ber 2008.
[42] ”Islannil­ta voi tul­la EU-hake­mus jo kevääl­lä”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 26 Novem­ber 2008.
[43] ”Euro houkut­telee”, Suomen Kuvale­hti, 7 Novem­ber 2008.
[44] ”Kri­isi muo­vaa Euroopan unio­nia”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 21 Octo­ber 2008.
[45] ”Medi­akin jo myön­tää: Ruot­si hyö­tyy kru­unus­taan”, Vai­h­toe­hto EU:lle 3–4/2008.
[46] ”Kansalli­nen itsekkyys nousee EU:ssa finanssikri­isin myötä”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 25 Octo­ber 2008.
[47] Jor­ma Ollila, chair­man of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talous­poli­ti­ikkaa syvän taan­tu­man kyn­nyk­sel­lä?”, speech at the 90th Anniver­sary of the Finnish Cham­ber of Com­merce, 19 Novem­ber 2008, Helsinki.
[48] ”Ollila: Suo­mi tarvit­see voimakkaam­paa elvy­tys­tä”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 20 Novem­ber 2008.
[49] ”Finanssikri­isi: Miten maail­ma on muut­tunut?”, newslet­ter, The Research Insti­tute of the Finnish Econ­o­my (ETLA), 29 Octo­ber 2008.
[50] ”Etla: Euroop­pa juut­tuu pitkään ja sitkeään taan­tu­maan”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 25 Novem­ber 2008.
[51] Jyr­ki Katainen, Min­is­ter of Finance: ”Talouden ja talous­poli­ti­ikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Eco­nom­ic Asso­ci­a­tion, 25 Novem­ber 2008, Helsinki.
[52] Jyr­ki Katainen, Min­is­ter of Finance: ”Talouden ja talous­poli­ti­ikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Eco­nom­ic Asso­ci­a­tion, 25 Novem­ber 2008, Helsinki.
[53] Sur­vey con­duct­ed between 1–11 Jan­u­ary 2009 by TNS Gallup Oy on behalf of the Euro­pean Parliament’s Infor­ma­tion Office in Helsin­ki and MTV3, avail­able at: http://www.europarl.fi/ressource/static/files/dokumenttipankki/EU-2009-RAPORTTI_1.pdf (last access: 10 March 2009).
[54] ”Rajus­ta velka­an­tu­mis­es­ta tuli EU-maid­en uusin pelko”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 21 Jan­u­ary 2009.
[55] See e.g. Jyr­ki Katainen, Min­is­ter of Finance: ”Talouden ja talous­poli­ti­ikan näkymät”, speech to the Finnish Eco­nom­ic Asso­ci­a­tion, 25 Novem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.vm.fi/vm/fi/03_tiedotteet_ja_puheet/02_puheet/20081126Taloud/name.jsp (last access: 30 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[56] Jor­ma Ollila, chair­man of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talous­poli­ti­ikkaa syvän taan­tu­man kyn­nyk­sel­lä?”, speech at the 90th Anniver­sary of the Finnish Cham­ber of Com­merce, 19 Novem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.kokoomus.fi/jyrkin_sivut/paivakirja/?x206056=209800 (last access: 30 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[57] Erk­ki Liika­nen, gov­er­nor of the Bank of Fin­land: pre­sen­ta­tion at FIIA sem­i­nar “Oba­man valin­nat”, 11 Decem­ber 2008.
[58] Raimo Väyry­nen, reser­acher: Speech at FIIA sem­i­nar “Oba­man valin­nat”, 11 Decem­ber 2008.
[59] See e.g. Mat­ti Nojonen/Mikael Mat­tlin, reser­achers: ”Kiinalle kasautuu yhä suurem­pi vas­tuu maail­man vakaud­es­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 13 Novem­ber 2008.
[60] Jor­ma Ollila, chair­man of the board of “Nokia”: ”Mikä on järkevää talous­poli­ti­ikkaa syvän taan­tu­man kyn­nyk­sel­lä?”, speech at the 90th Anniver­sary of the Finnish Cham­ber of Com­merce, 19 Novem­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.kokoomus.fi/jyrkin_sivut/paivakirja/?x206056=209800 (last access: 30 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[61] Mat­ti Van­hanen, Prime Min­is­ter: Speech at a Nordic sum­mit, Helsin­ki, 28 Octo­ber 2008, avail­able at: http://www.vnk.fi/ajankohtaista/puheet/puhe/fi.jsp?oid=242699 (last access: 30 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[62] See e.g. Mat­ti Nojonen/Mikael Mat­tlin, reser­achers: ”Kiinalle kasautuu yhä suurem­pi vas­tuu maail­man vakaud­es­ta”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 13 Novem­ber 2008.
[63] Alexan­der Stubb, Min­is­ter for For­eign Affairs: Speech at the FIIA sem­i­nar ”Europe’s Declin­ing Pow­er? Assess­ing the EU’s per­fo­mance at the Unit­ed Nations”, 16 Decem­ber 2008; Alexan­der Stubb, Min­is­ter for For­eign Affairs: Open­ing speech at the Annu­al Meet­ing of Heads of Mis­sions, 25 August 2008, avail­able at: http://www.formin.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=135322&nodeid=15149&contentlan=2&culture=en-US (last access: 27 Jan­u­ary 2009).
[64] ”Islannil­ta voi tul­la EU-hake­mus jo kevääl­lä”, Helsin­gin Sanomat, 26 Novem­ber 2008.